This study reported the current state of stakeholders' involvement in protected area management at organizational level in England, Germany and Italy. In German National Park (Nationalpark), state government, which is the substantial administrative body at the highest level, has strong involvement, while lower-level administrative bodies have weak involvement. National Park and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in England have a wide range of involvement from national government to parish that is the smallest and a sub-basic local government. National Park (Parco Nazionale) in Italy also has a wide range of involvement of administrative bodies from national government to municipalities called comune that is a basic local government, and therefore involvements of all levels of administrative bodies are identified. On the other hand, Nature Park (Naturpark) in Germany is managed by the organization in which local governments such as Landkreis and Gemeinde are involved, and Regional Natural Park (Parco Naturale regionale) in Italy is managed by the organization in which state government and municipalities are involved. Administrative bodies at the highest level are not involved in these protected areas, and therefore they are more cohesive to local communities than those above.
As sawn wood demand, building is considered to be the biggest use. Therefore we built an econometric model which divided sawing product demand in Kanto region into building and the other and estimated the marginal basic unit. Finally, we got slightly larger marginal basic unit per square meter for wood building and non-wood building i.e., 0.196 and 0.0283 respectively, than Tonosaki's computed using the National Statistics. On the other hand, the basic unit for aggregate house building we got is 0.0990, which is slightly lower than Tonosaki's. Furthermore, the calculated value of the sawn wood is higher than the real value, and the time trend will compensate the difference between the calculated value and the real value.
Past research revealed the following two things about Japan's forestry industry (forestry) public corporations, which is burdened with over 1 trillion yen in cumulative debt. First, one can find references to the problem of public corporation debt in research since 1980, and in 1985 researchers pointed out the flaws in the public corporation business model itself, but only cosmetic solutions were offered to deal with the debt problem. Research on public corporations declined in 1992 and subsequent years, and some public corporations were dissolved, but dissolution did not mean the resolution of the debt problem. An achievement of the research was clearly noting the responsibility of the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Finance Corporation as a lender. Second, when public corporations were created, their four expected roles were: (1) Carrying out expansive afforestation, (2) local economic development, (3) separation of forest management from forest ownership, and (4) using funds provided by the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Finance Corporation. These roles concluded in the period from the first half of the 1970s to the mid-1990s. Reasons that public corporations, owing to their type of organization, have managed to survive with their debts despite the end of these roles are their credit expansion, their separation of operations and management, and a system free of legal constraints.
The aim of this research is to find international price and GDP elasticities of demand for sawnwood. Cluster analysis is used to group 180 countries dealt with in the Global Forest Products Model (GFPM) using cross-section data of per capita GDP, per capita consumption of sawnwood, and forest coverage. The application of cluster analysis before estimating demand elasticities helps to solve the problem of data availability and to avoid grouping countries arbitrarily. In this research, long-term static models, short-term and long-term dynamic models are estimated using panel data analysis of each cluster. The results show that, in accordance with economic theory, long-term dynamic elasticities are higher than short-term dynamic elasticities, and dynamic model estimations are better than static model estimations as shown in RMSE values.