A macro theoretical analysis of timber trade problems is essential to any discussion of the forestry policy of Japan, a policy that depends on foreign countries for most of its forest products. In this paper, first by superimposing upon the data the author's theoretical analysis of the effect on domestic forest sustainability within countries involved in the timber trade, we get a rough picture of the relationship between the timber trade and world forest resources. Next, we apply the Stolper-Samuelson theorem to explain trade-induced changes in resource allocation and income distribution, and explain through various data the changes in Japan's agriculture, forestry and fisheries sector (an import substituting industry) and industrial sector (an exporting industry) since the Meiji era. We will see that compared to foreign countries Japan's level of trade dependence is low, and that since steady economic growth allowed wage levels to rise until about 2000, the effect on primary industry ended at scale reduction. However, in recent years employment absorption has reach its limits, and we can see that, in line with the Stolper-Samuelson theorem, distribution changes caused by trade liberalization and movement of capital are occurring. This raises implications for the future development of primary industry (including forestry) within Japan's present industrial structure.
The forestry has been modified under the stage of global capitalism. This paper surveys the change from the viewpoints of capital and land-ownership. The forest rent theory had expected the frame of forestry competition between silvicultural forestry (domestic) and extract forestry (foreign), but the frame has shifted than their expectations. The silvicultural forestry in foreign countries is formed under the financial economy and the neo-liberalism. While Japanese forestry is in a category of extract forestry because demands from domestic capitals expands the log production without securing reforestation costs. The inversion is originated from the reorganization of forest-ownership that adapts to the global capitalism. Additionally, the current situation has resemblances to the period of expansive afforestation. This paper considers how the Forest Sector deals with those changes.
To identify the trend in the demand for timber in the 2010s, I reviewed studies of the demand for lumber for construction published in the 2000s. Some studies showed that the quality of lumber was regarded as more important than before the 1990s; other studies showed that the lumber industry classified kiln-dried studs and adopted a market-segmentation method. We should examine builders' preferences carefully in order to comprehend the lumber market in detail. According to studies of the laminated lumber and plywood industries, more domestic timber is being consumed than in the last 10 years. In the plywood industry, sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) timber is suitable for thick conifer plywood, and the demand for domestic timber in the plywood industry will increase in the future.
The purpose of this study is to explore the development of outdoor recreation research on parks and natural areas in Japan. From a global perspective, Japanese researchers have increased their presence in international academic forums such as the International Symposium on Society and Resource Management (ISSRM) and the International Conference on Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas (MMV). However, the most important focus should be on organizing Asian researchers along the lines of organizations such as the ISSRM and MMV rather than increasing activities within these existing frameworks. Meanwhile, in the domestic context, over recent years, our research has been acknowledged in relation to practical management of parks and natural areas. However, researchers are not involved in the policy-making process; nor are our findings important in stakeholder decision making. In conclusion, our discipline based on conventional academic societies should be restructured to cross-cutting disciplines to increase the presence of outdoor recreation researchers. Furthermore, our academic activities under the discipline should be developed to organize Asian researchers.
In this study, to identify research direction of green tourism in the mountainous regions, related research results have been reviewed among the research fields of rural area, tourism and forest economics. Form the research field of rural area, socioeconomical impacts of green tourism on individual and quality control and manager of farm inn was found as important topics. Form the research field of rural area and tourism, it was found that study about methods for encouraging intermediate organizations to support and manage rural tourism was important. From the research field of forest economics, it was found that study about the conditions of green tourism as a community revitalization and synthetic research direction was found to be important which focuses not only on rural tourism but also focuses on multiple topics related to mountainous region, such as interactions between rural area and cities, timber production and forest management.
China's farmland expansion had been promoted to modernize and intensify agricultural management under the land contracting system. Through field studies in the countryside of Inner Mongolia, we analyzed the formation process and problems of management of farms with farmland expanded. The following two results were clarified by interviews to village leaders and farmers. Firstly, farmland had been expanded mainly due to forestland conversion and wasteland reclamation. As a result of applying modern agricultural technologies, such as "planting with reasonably high density" and developing multiple uses, both harvest and productivity of corn increased. Secondly, forestland conversion had caused such problems as environmental degradation, violation of Forest Law, and contradiction with the policy of returning farmland to forestland. Both farmers and government are facing these problems. The paper suggested that the government not rely on forestland conversion, but take actions to establish systems providing farmers more off-farm employment opportunities to maintain and increase farmers' income.