This study examines the history of Japan’s sawmilling industry, particularly focusing on sawlog use. Based on statistics, business publications, interview results, and other materials, the following results are obtained. First, as the import of sawlogs began increasing around 1960, sawmills chose log species they could secure enough quantities of in better conditions, and concentrated on specific products suitable for the respective log species chosen. This created lumber-producing centers specialized in log species and respective produced items. Thereafter, because of inter-regional competition, only up to three producing center（s）for each log species increased their market share, leading to inter-regional specialization or habitat segregation. Second, the replacement of log species is an issue for sawmills, because there is a strong relationship between log species, produced items, and mill location. However, imported-log sawmilling attempts to continue producing the same products, even by substituting log species. Finally, after 2000, domestic sawlog use by imported-log sawmills spread, reducing their competitive strength, due to the suitability of log species, produced items, and mill location. On the other hand, the decrease in imported-log sawmilling and growth of domestic forest resources expanded produced items and mill locations in domestic-log sawmilling. These changes further caused industry restructuring.
Log demand in Kyushu area has increased affected by scale expansion of lumber factories and new demand for domestic wood of a plywood factory and biomass power factories after 2000. The purpose of this paper are to figure out the current situation of log distributor such as log auction markets and its business sites where newly established or has changed, and changes on management policy of Forest Owners’Cooperatives（FOC）in Ooita Prefecture under the period of log demand expansion. The result of interviewing research with ten log distributors, sale through log auction is still major in some lumber production area, quantity of negotiation basis sale and log procurement by purchasing of stumpages has been increased in most of log auction market. However, the result of interviewing research with thirteen FOCs is that FOCs tend to have increase clear-cut operation, and their management was affected the changes of forest plan policy and subsidization more than expanding demand. On the other hand, the top five FOCs on timber production has an anxiety about planting and nursing labor shortage, FOCs has no capacity to have those operation on the site clear-cut out of their planning. Some log distributor has been started planting services on the site they had clear-cutting, there is still concern that decrement of log supply in the future.
This study examined changes of forest management after 1960, and considers the causes of change from the viewpoint of new institutionalism, focusing on two organization forms of forestry, the family management and the enterprise management. First, we examined the changes of ownership, silviculture, and felling conducted by each organizational form. The results reveal that 1） the ownership and the felling conducted by enterprises have increased gradually, and 2） the silviculture conducted by family management consistently have comparative advantage. It was thought the expansion in scale of forest-product industry gives the enterprise management of forestry advantage due to lower transaction costs. Second, we investigated decision making by family forest owners with several mail surveys data. The results show that only a few family members except owners join decision making in the family management. It was considered such situations influence the comparative advantages of family forest management.
Sustaining forestry management is very important for forest conservation and timber provision. Voluntary incentive scheme has received much attention from policy makers to sustain forestry management in developed countries. This paper investigates forestland owners’willingness to renew their contract using data from a questionnaire survey in Kumakogen town in Japan. In this paper, we also examine whether renewal decisions are explained by non-pecuniary motivations. Econometric analysis indicates that those who have large size of properties, reside in the town, and participate because of unmotivated successors are more likely to terminate their contract. Forest owners who seldom visit their forestland are more likely to renew. Forest owners’motivation for public goods provision and recreational use increases the probability to renew. Forest owners who participated in the program because of forest association’s encouragement are more likely to renew.
As a consequence of the rapid development of nature reserves in China, conflicts between nature protection and local economic development threaten ecological diversity and hinder economic development. The primary purpose of this study is to identify stakeholders involved in the conservation of the Wuyishan National Nature Reserve (NNR) and to clarify any conflicts among them. In the Wuyishan NNR, bamboo and black tea production are the principal industries. Several conflicts were discovered among the stakeholders in the Wuyishan NNR at varying degrees. A major conflict was identified between the Administrative Bureau, local township government, and the village committee regarding issues such as inadequate infrastructure maintenance, ecocompensation monetary values, and wildlife protection. Medium-scale conflicts exist between the Administrative Bureau and local stakeholders from the township government, the village committee, business owners, and farmers. Furthermore, not to be ignored, a minor conflict between farmers and a large number of migrant workers currently engaged in tea farming and bamboo forest management is also contributing to instability of the nature reserve’s forestland management. At the same time, stakeholders consider ecotourism development as a means to improve the economic situation of the Wuyishan NNR.
This study analyzes historical changes to the concept of the word satoyama, such as how it has been used until contemporary times and by which actors. A review of this concept’s history may offer directions for future consideration of the concept of satoyama in forest management studies and for the best approach to develop its study. Depending on the era in which it was used, the meaning of the term has undergone changes. It originated as a local word used within communities. Subsequently, it was sought out as a forest policy term after a fixed meaning was assigned to it. In the late 1940s, it was used as concept to improve the excessive logging in forestry. When it comes to the 1950s, it change to concept of high-degree application for farm forest. And 1970s and later, it appeared satoyama concept based on the nature protection. On the other hand, it based on forestry policy was stagnant.
Local community representation and perceptions toward decision-making of protected area collaborative management in Afghanistan were assessed with a case study of Band-e-Amir National Park (BANP). Community representatives (CRs) were interviewed to assess their capacity of knowledge, participation in decision-making, information exchange with communities, and perception toward the park management framework. Local residents, government agencies, a park warden, and an NGO representative were also interviewed to identify their perception and views toward the park management framework. We found that the CRs had insufficient knowledge for decision-making and weak information exchange with communities. We also found, however, that collaborative decision-making increased their learning opportunities. Although the park warden and NGO show positive views about the
park management framework due to conservation achievements, the lack of alternative livelihood sources and weak responses oｆ ｔｈｅ national government have resulted in the CRs and local residents having negative views. We conclude that accountable local community representation in decision-making and responsiveness of final decision-making bodies are essential to maintain local support for collaborative management of protected areas.