To understand the process of the resource shift from natural forest to planted forest by timber industries, an analysis was carried out on the major production areas of logs and timber products (sawn timber, plywood, chip and pulp) in Indonesia, estimating how the relationship among them changed. Until the 1990s, log production in Kalimantan and Sumatra was conducted mainly in natural forest concessions, to produce plywood and sawn timber. Since the 2000s, the pulp and chip industries have become the largest log consumers in Indonesia. Their main source is planted forests in Sumatra, but they also obtain raw material from planted forests in other regions, especially Kalimantan, and from tree-farming by small holders in Sumatra. Major plywood and sawn timber production has moved from Sumatra and Kalimantan to Java, and logs from tree-farming in Java have become the largest source, while logs from natural forest concessions in Kalimantan are also used as raw material. Plywood industries in Kalimantan source logs from surviving natural forest concessions, while logs from planted forest concessions in the region are also estimated to be used for raw material.
The Philippines had been a major log producer and exporter in the world in the 1950s to 70s. In recent years, however, timber production has not been able to meet even the growing domestic demand. The 2011 total log ban in natural forests put to an end harvest-forestry in natural forests, but this has not unfolded nurture/plantation-forestry in the state forestlands. Neither forest management communities nor industrial forest contractors in the state forestlands have been log producers. This made the private land forests active in log production, instead. Such developments are related to the post-war harvest-forestry being closely linked to rent seeking by the state actors. Since the Aquino administration started in 1986 after Marcos fall, ‘Non-Marcos’ in the forest administration has proceeded. This includes putting marginalized residents and communities as state forestland managers and neglecting wood industry which had been closely connected to the state actors. The decline of wood industry has hindered investment for establishment of forest plantation in the state forestlands. The reaction to Marcos’s appropriation of harvest-forestry has resulted in the failure of development of nurture/plantation-forestry in the state forestlands.
Vietnamese forest resource policies have been the most comprehensive of all Southeast Asian countries. In this article, the implementation processes of policies are clarified to discuss the background of Vietnamese forest resource strategies. A series of forest resource policies are examined according to the following three aspects: forest transition and protection, timber consumption in forest industry, and legality and sustainability of forest products. The analysis shows that Vietnamese forest resource strategies had points that applicability of policy implementation that firstly expanding plantation forest resource and then forcing export ban of timber and logging ban in natural forest, adequate timing in return to international market, and supplying to international market with forest products suitable for processing plantation timber. It was considered that these were made possible because Vietnamese political and economic system, which is mixture of socialism and market economy, was suitable for solving problems related to forest and forestry that have both public and economics characteristics.
Using input-output analysis, we estimated the economic effects of utilizing Tama lumber in the renovation project of Tokyu Togoshi-Ginza station. Final demand of the project was estimated to be 12.970 million yen on the basis of an interview with Tokyu corporate employees and a field survey at the station. The production value of the economic effect was 30.267 million yen (10.130 million yen in Tokyo; 12.618 million yen in Fukushima Prefecture; and 7.519 million yen in other prefectures). The added value was 14.675 million yen (5.964 million yen in Tokyo; 5.136 million yen in Fukushima Prefecture; and 3.575 million yen in other prefectures). The new employment created in the Fukushima Prefecture wood industry was 0.75 and that in the Tokyo forest industry was 0.66. We concluded that the utilization of local wood in Tokyo had a greater influence outside Tokyo than it did in Tokyo. We recommended that the Tokyo government recognize the results positively to contribute to the national economy instead of regarding them as opportunity loss for Tokyo. It is important to evaluate the economic effects of local wood utilization by adopting a supply-chain-based approach.
This paper discusses the current state of and future trends in the forest administration of municipalities in Japan. We conducted a nationwide postal questionnaire survey with municipalities in fiscal year 2018. The survey results, based on responses from 615 municipalities, showed that many of the municipalities’forest divisions were small in terms of the number of staff and that many of the staff did not specialize in forest administration. Indeed, many were in charge of other businesses as well as the forest division. Most municipalities responded negatively to the recent decentralization of forest policy, considering that it imposed additional burdens on them. About half of the municipalities considered strengthening the capacity of their forest division in response to the decentralization. Municipalities were divided in their opinions on the forthcoming Forest Environmental Tax, subsequently introduced in 2019, with some responses positive and others negative. Despite some of the shortcomings in forest administration
mentioned above, the survey also found that increasing numbers of municipalities had developed their own municipal forest plans
and established forest boards, and were starting to adopt positive attitudes to developing their own policies and systems. However,
for the time being, as forest administration remains in a vulnerable state, the government should reconsider undertaking further decentralization
of forest policy and instead implement further measures to strengthen the capacity of municipal forest administration.
In 2014, The Ministry of the Environment in Japan showed a policy to promote the construction of the collaborative management system in national parks within the country, in which management is determined by participation and discussion of various stakeholders such as the government, business entities and residents. Accordingly, a typical example, “Kamikochi Vision 2014”, regional management policy in the Chubu Sangaku National Park Kamikochi area, was formulated. In this paper, we analyze the consensus-building process of natural resource management in Kamikochi and to clarify the three-dimensional structure of the local community related to decision-making. As a result, it became clear that Kamikochi's collaborative management system has multiple layers of consensus-building processes. There are two formal decision-making places related to policy; one lead by the government and the other lead by the local residents. In the lower layer, the local nature conservation group that originate from regional
beautification functions as an adaptable and informal place for discussion. These multiple layers facilitate consensus-building. And more, there are some histories of coordinating opinions on various conflicts related to natural resource management, and it is thought that these experiences have become the basis for coordinating opinions among more diverse stakeholders in recent years.