The production and utilization of biofuel is promoted in the U.S., and it is estimated that the U.S. biofuel market will continue to expand in the future. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decided partially waiver to allow gasoline that contains up to 15 volume percent bioethanol (E15) for certain motor vehicles on October 13, 2010. EPA approved the waiver for 2007 and newer passenger cars, light trucks including sports utility vehicles (SUV). This study uses dynamic partial equilibrium model to examine how the increasing U.S. bioethanol blend ratio on the world corn market. The baseline projection is based on a series of assumptions about the general economy, agricultural policies, and technological growth in all countries and regions during the projection period. In addition to this, it is assumed that gasoline stations in Mid-West states would install E15 equipments for certain vehicles. This study supposes two scenarios to compare with baseline scenario. If the U.S. government doesn't grant the waiver, world corn price would decrease by 1.10% in 2011/12 and 4.14% in 2020/21. In addition to this, if gasoline stations in all U.S. states install E15 equipments, world corn price will increase by 5.03% in 2011/12 and 14.01% in 2020/21. The results of this study indicate that the increasing of U.S. bioethanol blend ratio will impact on the world corn market and their impact will increase gradually from year to year.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the whole picture of umeboshi (Japanese pickled plums) food system, and its structural changes, focusing on differences among producing regions and their interrelationship. In the existing food system analyses, the spatial viewpoint has been weak. Then this paper has tried to refine the existing structural framework by introducing a new sub-structure named “spatial structure”, that means differences among producing regions and their interrelationship in the structures of the food system. By using the renewed framework, the characteristics of umeboshi food system have been outlined as follows. Firstly, it has been found that between the Minabe-Tanabe region of Wakayama, the largest producing region, and Wakasa of Fukui, one of the medium and small producing regions, there are many differences on the factors which define the figure of the food system. In addition, the two food systems viewed from Minabe-Tanabe and Wakasa intersect at the processing stage through the raw material supply. This intersection underpins a hierarchical relationship between regions. These findings suggest that it is essential to focus the “spatial structure” of the food system.