This study examined the content of meals, focusing on the combination of dishes for three meals, to clarify their association with people's attitudes toward meals, gender, age, and household type. We used data from Internet surveys conducted in March 2014 and March 2015 on 1114 men and 1197 women aged 20-49 years. Multiple correspondence analysis was performed to estimate the associations between meal patterns for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, the respondents' attitudes toward meals, and demographic factors. Results showed that not a few people had only simplified meals such as “staple-only” meals, while others had relatively structured meals three times a day, such as the “staple and dishes/soup” pattern. They also showed that the combination of dishes eaten was associated with attitudes toward meals and was influenced by demographic factors. However, there were some differences between men and women in the association of meal patterns with other factors. Men's meal patterns were closely associated with their attitudes toward meals. On the other hand, women's dietary patterns were mainly determined by their household type. Notably, women with children were likely to have relatively structured meals, regardless of their attitudes toward meals. In addition, the “staple-only” pattern, which was one of the simplified meal patterns, was observed mainly among men, and another simplified pattern, “dishes/soup” pattern, which omits staple food, appeared mostly among single women. It may be essential to consider this simplification of meals when designing communication to promote improved dietary habits.
The purpose of this article is to investigate the structure of market channels and the impacts of the direct marketing on farm sales, focusing on the top one percent rice farms (large rice farms). We have used the agricultural census farm-level data, to which was applied propensity score matching. Our findings in this article are as follows. Firstly, more than half the large rice farms used multiple marketing channels and the number of market channels used were increasing. Secondly, direct marketing to consumers by farms ranked second and shipment to agricultural cooperatives ranked first for both large rice farms and all rice farms. Thirdly, in recent years, for large rice farms, the ratio of the implementation of direct marketing to consumers has been decreasing and the farms are changing shipping destinations from the direct marketing to consumers to retail sellers, food manufacturers and the food-service industry. Fourthly, the results of propensity score matching indicate that direct marketing to consumers increases farm sales for family-owned management entities, while this is not valid for organized management entities.