The purpose of this study was to estimate the food supply and nutrient intake on the basis of the food material records of evacuation centers after the flood that hit Wakayama Prefecture on July 18, 1953. The data obtained from the records was analyzed and compared with that from the National Nutrition Survey in 1953 and the nutritional intake situation during a recent disaster, such as the Great East Japan Earthquake, to obtain suggestions on measures to ensure food supply for future disasters. The amount of rice supplied per person in each of the six former municipalities of Gobo City was approximately 331-350 g/day, which was equivalent to the average energy intake per person according to the National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1953. The estimated daily nutrient intake per person was as follows: energy 1,278-1,473 kcal, protein 23.1-35.8 g, lipids 3.5-5.7 g, and carbohydrates 275.3-307.4 g. More than 90% of the energy and carbohydrate intake after the July 18 flood was from rice in all but one of the villages and towns. Furthermore, we estimated that at least 58% of the evacuees’ protein intake was from rice, although protein intake varied among the municipalities. The abovementioned research findings showed that rice was important for not only securing energy but also realizing sufficient protein intake from the emergency food provision during and after the flood. Past experiences suggest the importance of stockpiling and utilizing rice to ensure adequate energy and protein intake in the event of a disaster.
An increasing number of studies have pointed out that the perspective of a supply chain rather than an individual industry is important for disaster management in the dairy industry. This study aims to evaluate existing disaster measures by analyzing the impacts of the 2008 Hokkaido Eastern Iburi Earthquake on a milk supply chain. The analysis primarily addresses the stages from dairy farming to milk processing, focusing on the redundancy and flexibility of the supply chain. The widespread electricity outage caused by the earthquake brought most dairy plants to a halt and a large amount of raw milk was discarded. However, milk production quickly recovered as many dairy farmers were able to use their own power generators. Compared to raw milk production, dairy corporations took a longer time to recover due to the disposal of products and raw milk as well as restrictions on capacity for raw milk transportation. The supply chain measures after the earthquake were based on the policy of minimizing milk wastage by continuously shipping raw milk to dairy plants with power generation facilities, even during power outages. This policy framework is similar to supply and demand adjustment in normal times and presupposes that milk corporations pay more adjustment costs than producers. However, depending on the scale of the disaster, this approach may not be effective and could have a prolonged impact on the supply chain. To increase supply chain resilience, it is necessary to discuss how to share costs among chain actors.
In response to mass production/consumption conversion and crises, such as catastrophic disasters, strengthening the territorialised food system and enhancing response capability at the regional level is necessary. In France, since the law, LOI d'Avenir pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et la forêt, was enacted in 2014, projets alimentaires territoriaux (PAT) have been implemented in various territories, including large cities, with the aim of constructing a système alimentaire territorialisé (SAT). The concept of SAT and the purpose and features of PAT as well as the policy context leading to it were identified through the law and literatures. The practice of PAT in Toulouse Metropolis was then clarified based on the interview survey with Direction Régionale de l'Alimentation, de l'Agriculture et de la Forêt Occitanie, Toulouse Métropole and the Toulouse Occitanie Wholesale Market in January 2020. It was found that PAT aims to improve the quality of agriculture and food in the region by more closely linking producers, processors, distributors, local governments and consumers. Local governments at each level, associations and regional farmers jointly undertake the initiative. Moreover, all parties decide on projects and actions by their own will based on diagnostics and discussions on agriculture and food in the region, conducting the activities in cooperation with each other.
This article reports the current status of organic market data collection in Europe and the United States, and discusses possible measures to improve the availability, reliability, and comparability of these data in Japan. Consumer panel data collection is the most likely method to tackle this task in Japan, though to utilize the data, all organic food products must be identified among all the food products sold in the domestic market. Also, for a market size estimate, an additional survey with producers is necessary to include sales of non-barcoded products, such as vegetables, fruits and rice. Stakeholders are advised to form a network for organic market data collection, and to decide whether to include non-certified organic products and sales in the organic catering sector in the market estimate.
Sustainability is currently one of the most important issues for agricultural activities. This study used scanner panel data to analyze consumers’ evaluation of organic agricultural products. The main aim was to describe consumers’ preference heterogeneity and purchase motivation for organic vegetables. The data set combined purchase history of Japanese mustard spinach and consumers’ demographics and attitudes for food were analyzed using a random parameter multinomial logit model. The results revealed that the distribution of marginal willingness to pay（MWTP）for organic products was wider than specially cultivated agricultural products, which are cultivated with 50% usage of chemicals. In addition, consumers concerns about food safety issues and public benefit had higher MWTP for organic products. This may indicate that consumers of organic vegetables are motivated by food safety concerns and willingness to contribute to mitigate environmental load in agricultural production.