This paper describes an experimental field study of the rotor aerodynamics of wind turbines. The test wind turbine is a horizontal axis wind turbine, or: HAWT with a diameter of 10m. The pressure distributions on the rotating blade are measured with multi point pressure transducers. Sectional aerodynamic forces are analyzed from pressure distribution. Blade root moments are measured simultaneously by a pair of strain gauges. The inflow wind is measured by a three component sonic anemometer, the local inflow of the blade section are measured by a pair of 7 hole Pitot tubes. The relation between the aerodynamic moments on the blade root from pressure distribution and the mechanical moment from strain gauges is discussed. The aerodynamic moments are estimated from the sectional aerodynamic forces and show oscillation caused by local wind speed and direction change. The mechanical moment shows similar oscillation to the aerodynamic excepting the short period oscillation of the blade first mode frequency. The fluctuation of the sectional aerodynamic force triggers resonant blade oscillations. Where stall is present along the blade section, the blade's first mode frequency is dominant. Without stall, the rotating frequency is dominant in the blade root moment.
In the present study, the hub-height wind speed ratios for 16 individual wind directional groups were estimated by the RIAM-COMPACT for Noma Wind Park, Kagoshima Prefecture. The validity of the proposed estimation technique for the actual wind was examined. For this procedure, field observational data from the one year period between April, 2004 and March, 2005 were studied. In this case, the relative error on the prediction accuracy was less than 10% and less than 5% for the monthly and annual average wind speeds, respectively. Similar to the results for the annual average wind speed, the difference in the selected reference points (Wind Turbines #4 and #6) had little difference in the relative error on the prediction accuracy of the annual energy output. For both reference points, the relative error was within 10%.
This paper discusses the field tests of the wind turbine unit, in which the front and the rear wind rotors drive the inner and the outer armatures of the synchronous generator. The wind rotors were designed conveniently by the traditional procedure for the single wind rotor, where the diameters of the front and the rear wind rotors are 2 m and 1.33 m. The tests were done on a pick-up type truck driven straightly at constant speed. The rotational torque of the unit is directly proportional to the induced electric current irrespective of the rotational speeds of the wind rotors, while the induced voltage is proportional to the relative rotational speed. The performance of the unit is significantly affected not only by the wind velocity, but also by the blade setting angles of both wind rotors and the applied load especially at lower wind velocity.
The authors have invented the superior wind turbine unit which is composed of the tandem wind rotors and the double rotational armature type generator without the traditional stator. The large-sized front wind rotor and the small-sized rear wind rotor drive the inner and the outer armatures respectively, in keeping the rotational torque counter-balanced. Such operating conditions may be able to make the output higher than the traditional wind turbines, and to keep the output constant in the rated operation mode without the brakes and/or the pitch control mechanism. The unique rotational conditions of the tandem wind rotors and the fundamental characteristics of this unit were presented at the previous paper. Continuously, this paper discusses experimentally the effects of the tandem wind rotor profiles on the characteristics of this unit. The desirable profiles and the main results are as follows. (1) The optimum diameter ratio is DRF (rear wind rotor diameter divided by the front wind rotor diameter)=0.84, and the axial distance between both wind rotors should be set as short as possible. (2) The output is higher while the relative tip speed ratio increases as compared with the single wind rotor.
A straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine with a directed guide vane row has been proposed in order to enhance its torque. The experimental study of the proposed wind turbine was carried out by a wind tunnel with an outlet diameter of 1.8m. The tested rotor has some straight rotor blades with a profile of NACA0015, a diameter of 0.6 m and a height of 0.7 m. The guide vane row having 3 arc plates rotates around the rotor and is directed to the wind by aerodynamic force generated by tail vanes, so as to put the guide vane row in upstream of the rotor. As a result, the performance of the straight-bladed vertical axis turbine was improved by means of the directed guide vane row. Further, by the use of the guide vane row adopted in the study, the power coefficient of the proposed wind turbine was approximately 1.5 times higher than that of the original wind turbine which has no guide vane.
A ducted Darrieus-type hydro turbine has been proposed for extra-low head hydropower utilization of total head less than 2m, where development is almost not done in the commercial base. Though the efficiency of Darrieus-type turbine, which is cross flow type, is not so high as conventional type, the Darrieus-type has a cost-advantage due to the simple structure. By installing a narrow intake at upstream of the runner, the efficiency becomes higher than normal intake that a width of which is the same as one of runner section. In the case of normal intake, the casing clearance between the runner pitch circle and the side-wall at the runner section becomes the influential factor which deteriorates the efficiency. On the other hand, in the case of narrow intake, it is possible to keep efficiency high, based on the fact that the distorting flow to the clearance is prevented. In the present paper, the effects of narrow intake and draft tube on turbine performance are experimentally examined and the design guideline of simplified structure for ducted Darrieus-type turbine with narrow intake is proposed.
Recently, small hydropower attracts attention because of its clean, renewable and abundant energy resources to develop. Therefore, a cross-flow hydraulic turbine is proposed for small hydropower in this study because the turbine has relatively simple structure and high possibility of applying to small hydropower. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the turbine's structural configuration on the performance and internal flow characteristics of the cross-flow turbine model using CFD analysis. The results show that nozzle shape, runner blade angle and runner blade number are closely related to the performance and internal flow of the turbine. Moreover, air layer in the turbine runner plays very important roles of improving the turbine performance.
The aim of this investigation is to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. Three type models of Savonius rotor are constructed and tested in a water tunnel to improve and clarify the power performance. Flow field around the rotor is examined visually to reveal the enhancement mechanisms of power coefficient using the double-step rotor. Flow visualization showed the difference of flow patterns at the central section between the standard (single-step) rotor and the double-step one. A meandering flow in the axial direction of the rotor was observed only for the double-step rotor. This flow had the pressure restoration effect at the returning blade's concave side and the torque strengthened effect at the advancing blade's convex side. As a consequence, the power coefficient was 10% improved.
The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. A model of a two-bucket Savonius type hydraulic turbine was constructed and tested in a water tunnel to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of two installation parameters, namely a distance between a rotor and a bottom wall of the tunnel, a rotation direction of the rotor, on the power performance were studied. A flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions on the flow field. The flow visualization showed differences of flow pattern around the rotor by the change of these parameters. From this study it was found that the power performances of Savonius hydraulic turbine were changed with the distance between the rotor and the bottom wall of the tunnel and with a rotation direction of the rotor.
In recent years the Darrieus wind turbine concept has been adapted for use in water, either as a hydrokinetic turbine converting the kinetic energy of a moving fluid in open flow like an underwater wind turbine, or in a low head or ducted arrangement where flow is confined, streamtube expansion is controlled and efficiency is not subject to the Betz limit. Conventional fixed pitch Darrieus turbines suffer from two drawbacks, (i) low starting torque and (ii) shaking due to cyclical variations in blade angle of attack. Ventilation and cavitation can also cause problems in water turbines when blade velocities are high. Shaking can be largely overcome by the use of helical blades, but these do not produce large starting torque. Variable pitch can produce high starting torque and high efficiency, and by suitable choice of pitch regime, shaking can be minimized but not entirely eliminated. Ventilation can be prevented by avoiding operation close to a free surface, and cavitation can be prevented by limiting blade velocities. This paper summarizes recent developments in Darrieus water turbines, some problems and some possible solutions.
The Darrieus turbine is popular for tidal current power generation in Japan. It is simple in structure with straight wings rotating around a vertical axis, so that it has no directionality against the motion of tidal flow which changes its direction twice a day. However, there is one defect in the Darrieus turbine; its small starting torque. Once it stops, a Darrieus turbine is hard to re-start until a fairly fast current is exerted on it. To improve the starting torque of the Darrieus turbine used for tidal power generation, a hybrid turbine, composed of a Darrieus turbine and a Savonius rotor is proposed. Hydrodynamic characteristics of a semi-circular section used for the Savonius bucket were measured in a wind tunnel. The torque of a two bucket Savonius rotor was measured in a circulating water channel, where four different configurations of the bucket were compared. A combined Darrieus and Savonius turbine was tested in the circulating water channel, where the effect of the attaching angle between Darrieus wing and Savonius rotor was studied. Finally, power generation experiments using a 48 pole electric generator were conducted in a towing tank and the power coefficients were compared with the results of experiments obtained in the circulating water channel.
The objective of this paper is to present the effect of end plate on the performances of the impulse turbine for wave energy conversion by experimental investigation. The experiments have been performed by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study. And then, the performances of the impulse turbine with end plates have been compared with those of the original impulse turbine, i.e., the impulse turbine without end plate. As a result, it is found that the characteristics of the impulse turbine with end plates are superior to those of the original impulse turbine. Furthermore, the effects of end plate size and penetration on the turbine characteristics have been clarified in the study.
Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) is a type of oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter invented by Masuda. BBDB is said to have superior primary conversion efficiency with maintaining small mooring costs. However, some problems remain unclear with the relationship between body shape and its motions in addition to the primary conversion efficiency and its motions. A number of physical tests for five different BBDB models were carried out in this research. From these experimental results, the effects of BBDB hull shape and the primary conversion efficiency were obtained. Furthermore, methods for obtaining incident wave components and for obtaining the responses of BBDB induced by the incident waves using the experimental results of BBDB are proposed.
This paper investigates a small size wave power device with an impulse turbine installed in the breakwater near Niigata Port, Japan. The device consists of an air chamber, a turbine, a generator and pressure-relief valves. This study reveals the characteristics of each component in this system with impulse turbine and a direct current dynamo the power of which is consumed by a constant resistor. In this paper special features of the impulse turbine are found, and the system characteristics are briefly represented. The overall plant performance was analyzed using mathematical model of an oscillating water column (OWC) based on linear water wave theory and the special features of the impulse turbine.