Determinative studies were carried out with Brevibacterium, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Sarcina, Alcaligenes and Achromobacter isolated from oil-brines obtained in petroleum zones in Japan, and the following species were identified: Brevibacterium pusillum nov. sp., 2 strains; Brev. Helvolum (ZIMMERMANN) LOCHHEAD, 4 strains; Brev. Sulfureum (BERGEY et al.) BREED, 1 strain; Arthrobacter ureafaciens (KREBS and EGGLESTON) CLARK, 2 strains; Arth. tumescens (JENSEN) CONN and DIMMICK, 2 strains; Micrococcus varians MIGULA, 2 strains; Micr. conglomeratus MIGULA, 3 strains; Micr. luteus (SCHROETER) COHN, 1 strain; Micr. candidus COHN, 2 strains: Sarcina lutea SCHROETER, 1 strain; S. lutea subsp. flava KOCUR and MARTINEC, 12 strains; Alcaligenes faecalis CASTELLANI and CHALMERS, 2 strains; and Achromobacterdelicatulus (JORDAN) BERGEY et al., 1 strain. This paper was read at the 191st Meeting of the Kanto Branch of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan held on February 28, 1959.
Microbiological studies of the Higashiyama oil mining field where oil was recovered by mining were carried out. Microflora of this oil-gallery consisted of taxonomically limited kinds of microorganisms such as Pseudomonas, Aspergillus, and unidentified black molds which probably belonged to Dematiaceae. In oil-rich sands, considerable numbers of pseudomonads and black molds were found, but aspergilli were isolated only from oil-poor sands. A relationship between depth from the gallery wall and microorganisms and the gradual succession in the microflora was also presented. The presence of petroleum was deduced as the most important factor controlling the microflora. This paper was read at the Annual Meeting of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan held on April 10, 1959.
The mean cumulative-age of microbes was defined, and a procedure of calculating the age thus defined was presented; examples of the calculation were given. A distinction between batch and continuous operations in fermentations will be revealed by using the concept of the mean cumulative-age of microbes. Although an ultimate objective-whether or not the concept can be applied in the design and operation of a continuous fermentation-remains to be discussed, the cumulative-age concept and the procedure of calculating the microbial age are deemed worthy of attention in analyzing the experimental data, particularly of mycelial fermentations.
Continuous fermentations of different species of mycelia have been studied by many workers. The concept of the mean cumulative microbial age which was defined and derived previously was used to study the relation between the continuous and the batch runs in the same fermentations. If such a relations can be established it will be useful for the design and operations of a continuous fermentation. But this relation cannot be made clear in situ from the published data on the continuous operations starting initially from a batch run in the mycelial fermentations. The data regarding two different kinds of mycelial fermentation were reanalyzed from the viewpoint of the microbial age. When the data were reassessed from this point of view and so far as the data referred to in this paper were concerned, there were no marked differences between the microbial activities in the batch and the continuous runs in the two examples cited. It is not justified to apply this conclusion in all other similar fermentations. However, the analysis attempted here may provide a clue to designing a continuous fermentation, if the requirement of the design is based primarily on the performance of batch runs in a specific multi-cellular fermentation.
As a result of quantitative studies, the racemization of lactate in Loctobacillus plantarum was found to be a cooperative reaction catalyzed by NAD-linked D- and L-lactate dehydrogenases. Any positive evidence of the existence of lactate racemase as a single enzyme in this organism could not be obtained. The former "Racemiase" is concluded to be a mixture of two enzymes.
1. Logarithmically growing cells of Pseudomonas P were suspended to a final concentration of 25mg wet cells/ml ("conc. culture"). Under these conditions, synthesis of r-RNA is almost completely inhibited and m-RNA is detected, while syntheses of s-RNA and DNA continue. 2. When these cells are resuspended to a final concentration of 2mg wet cells/ml ("dil. culture"), synthesis of r-RNA begins. In "conc. culture 25min.-dil. culture" system, DNA, s-RNA and r-RNA syntheses occur at about the same rate, but in "conc. culture 100min.-dil. culture" system the specific synthesis of r-RNA is observed.
1. To learn the fate of m-RNA, we used the system of "conc. culture 25min.-dil, culture 15min.", characterization of which was shown in the previous paper. 2. About half of the 14C-uracil incorporated into m-RNA during "conc. culture 25mm." was found in r-RNA in "dil. culture 15min.", which was scarcely diluted by extracellularly added 12C-uracil. 3. These results indicate that some m-RNA was incorporated into r-RNA without mixing with acid soluble compounds, while some degraded into the acid soluble pool.
The quantitative conversion of sucrose to 3-ketosucrose could be demonstrated with resting cells of Agrobacterium tumefaciens which possess large amounts of invertase showing a strong activity toward 3-ketosucrose. In order to explain the above findings, the sugar transport systems, entry and exit mechnisms, and localization of invertase studies were discussed. The following theory was hypothesized: (1) the locus of invertase in the cells is independent of all sites concerning sugar transport and oxidation of sucrose and (2) the presence of a specific system for 3-ketosucrose efflux reaction is possible.
The conidia of Aspergillus oryzae germinated in the presence of 14CO2 were collected after 45min, when appreciably no net synthesis of nucleic acids proceeded, and nucleic acids were extracted with phenol from the conidia. The separation of nucleic acids were effected by various methods, such as methylated albumin-kieselguhr column chromarography, zone electrophoresis and gel-filtration chromatography. It was clearly demonstrated that sRNA and rRNA were highly labeled while DNA was not. This results together with the previous observation on DNA base composition suggested that appreciably no modification of DNA occurred in the early period of germination.
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