A taxonomical study of the Aspergillus was made centering on 403 strains of koji mold, with some other molds as reference. Morphological, physiological, and cultural characters were compared, and 20 mycological characters of each strain were submitted to component analysis by a computer, and the following characters were selected as the most significant key for taxonomical differentiation: Seriation of sterigmata, roughness of conidial walls, color of old cultures, diameter of conidia, and pink coloration of conidia in the anisaldehyde medium. In addition, the strains RIB 430 and Thom No. 113 were found to be the original isolate of AHLBURG and COHN; the strain Thom No. 108 was proved to be A. oryzae, and A. sojae SAKAGUCHI et YAMADA was definitely discriminated from A. parasiticus SPEARE. As a result, all the strains were proved to belong to two different clusters by the computer analysis, one being the A. oryzae group and the other, A. flavus group. The koji molds were placed in A. oryzae group including A. sojae SAKAGUCHI et YAMADA, A. tamarii KITA, A. oryzae (Ahlburg) COHN, A. oryzae var. viride, var. nov., and A. oryzae var. brunneus, var. nov., and the strains other than koji mold were placed in A. flavus group including A. flavus LINK, A. parasiticus SPEARE, and A. toxicarius, sp. nov.
The cytology of the ascus in Achaetomium globosum and A. luteum was studied using BAC (butanol-acetic acid-chromic acid, 3:2:1) fixative and propiono-iron-haematoxylin stain. Ascus initial is the binucleate penultimate cell of the crozier. In A. luteum pachytene chromosomes are very long, easily countable, and the nucleolar organizer is clearly distinct. In general, divisions I and III stages are prominent in both the species studied, while division II stages are less frequent. Division IV starts during the delimitation of ascospores and continues in the mature ascospores. The chromosome number as counted from metaphase III configurations in A. globosum and pachytene configurations in A. luteum is 7 (n=7).
Fresh rumen contents of sheep, taken at various periods after feeding, were incubated with sodium DL-lactate [2-14C] and the turnover rate of the acid was estimated. The radioactivities of consumed lactate were predominantly found in acetate in most cases, but also in propionate when the pool size of lactate was large. By comparing the rate of fatty acid production via lactate with the rate of individual fatty acid production determined simultaneously, the contribution of lactate as an intermediate in fatty acid production was calculated. Under certain conditions, 40% of acetate and 32% of propionate were formed via lactate when the animal was fed on hay and concentrated feed.