The enzymic transformation of progesterone with Aspergillus fischeri led to the formation of 11α-hydroxyprogesterone, 6β, 11α- dihydroxyprogesterone, Δ4-androstene-3, 17-dione, testosterone, and testololactone. The transformation pattern of progesterone by this organism appeared to be unaffected by the composition of the fermentation medium employed, although a considerable variation in the yield of each product was recorded in each experimental treatment. The sequence of the formation of different transformation products was studied by allowing the fermentation to proceed for different time intervals. Different derivatives of progesterone were used as substrates in a trial to investigate the pathways of progesterone transformation by the experimental organism. A scheme is put forward summarizing these reactions.
Candida tropicalis utilized phenol, catechol, and 3- and 4-methylcatechols for growth as sole carbon source, but did not utilize p-, m-, or o-cresols, or p-, m-, and o-hydroxybenzoates. The yeast cells, however, rapidly oxidized cresols without a lag period after incubation with phenol. In a medium containing phenol, two major metabolites were accumulated, i.e., one, catechol and the other, the ring-cleaved metabolite of catechol, identified as C6H6O4. Therefore, it appears that the first step of the phenol oxidation by the yeast is monohydroxylation of phenol. The metabolite from p- or m-cresol by phenol-adapted cells was isolated and identified as 5-formyl-2-hydroxy-4-methyl-2, 4-pentadienoic acid. The same compound was obtained from 4-methylcatechol used as substrate. It was suggested that p- and m-cresols were hydroxylated to form 4-methyl- catechol, followed by the cleavage with extra-diol type ring fission. The oxidation of o-cresol at slower rate was also demonstrated. The metabolite from o-cresol gave different UV absorption spectrum from that formed from 3-methylcatechol.
From the cells of 128 strains which belong to the genera Hansenula, Pichia, Citeromyces, Pachysolen, and Wingea, coenzyme Q (Co-Q) was extracted and partially purified. The type of Co-Q was determined mainly by paper chromatography. The Co-Q system of the genus Hansenula was composed of Co-Q7 except for two species, H. capsulate (Q8) and H. holstii (Q8). Others with the latter unique quinone system were Cit. matritensis and Pa. tannophilus. In contrast, the heterogeneous nature of the genus Pichia was reconfirmed, because of a complex distribution of three different kinds of Co-Q (Q7, Q8, and Q9). Most species of this genus with hat- or Saturn-shaped ascospores such as P. membranaefaciens were characterized by possessing Co-Q7, whose Co-Q system was consistent with that of the genus Hansenula. Pichia pastoris was the only species with Co-Q8 in this genus. The Co-Q9 system was found in P. farinosa, P. haplophila, all of "round-spored" pichiae, some of the guilliermondii group and W. robertsii. The results concerning the Co-Q system are discussed in connection with other criteria such as serological characteristics, PMR spectra of cell-wall mannans, DNA base composition, etc.
1) Pyocin R-sensitive cells were digested with lysozyme in the presence of EDTA in hypertonic solution. Most of the receptor activity was solubilized, by this procedure, and separated from spheroplast membrane fraction. This suggested the location of receptor on the cell wall. 2) Electron microscopic figure revealed the adsorption of pyocin R on the cell surface and its fragment. Pyocin particles were adsorbed on the receptor site with the contracted sheath, at the tip of core. 3) Properties of interaction between pyocin R and its receptor were studied. Pyocin R inactivation by its adsorption to the receptor was highly dependent on temperature, and the presence of 0.1-0.2M NaCl was necessary for the optimal inactivation. 4) Size of receptor site required for the inactivation of a pyocin particle was estimated.
Kinetic equations dealing with rates of substrate consumption, cell growth, respiration, product formation and heat evolution have been derived for Saccharonzyces cerevisiae growing on ethanol as the sole carbonaceous material. These equations which could all be shown as functions of ethanol and dissolved oxygen concentrations will be of help to simplify the approach from microbial kinetics to an attempt of optimization in the fermentation industry.
Thirty-eight strains of hiochi bacteria, ethanol-tolerant Saké-spoilage lactobacilli, were analyzed for their cellular fatty acid spectra with special reference to their classification. They were separated, with respect to their fatty acid spectra, into three groups, which corresponded respectively to the homo- fermentor, and mevalonic acid-dependent and -independent hetero-fermentors. Long straight-chain saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids with 20-26 carbon atoms were found, in addition to fatty acids ordinarily known in typical lactobacilli, exclusively in the mevalonic acid- dependent hetero- fermentative group (L. heterohiochii), the most predominant Saké-spoilage microorganism. Uniqueness of the synthetic pathways for fatty acids of this alcoholophilic organism producing these long-chain acids was pointed out, and the feasibility of detecting or characterizing rapidly the spoilage bacteria in hiochi-infected Saké through the fatty acid analysis of the sedimented cells was discussed.