Twenty-six cultures were examined for the MK system of aerobic gram-positive cocci. Sporosarcina ureae revealed the MK-7 system, which is consistent with that of the genus Bacillus. In the genus Planococcus, the only system composed of MK-8(MK-7) was found. The genus Staphylococcus was divided into two groups according to the MK system, viz., MK-8(MK-7) in St. aureus and MK-7 in St. epidermidis and St. saprophyticus. The genus Micrococcus was confirmed to be the most complicated; it had MK-8(MK-7). MK-8(H2), and MK-9(H2) in M. luteus, MK-9(H2) in M. agilis, and MK-7(H2) in M. varians. The pinkish red-pigmented, revised species M. agilis Ali-Cohen 1889 is distinguished from M. roseus on the basis of its MK-9(H2) system. Discussions are made on the classification of these aerobic gram-positive cocci from the viewpoint of the MK system.
Six strains were obtained from raspberries of Rubus parvifolius, which were characterized by a gram-negative short rod with polar flagellation, oxidation of acetate and lactate, and ubiquinone with 8 isoprene units. The properties of these organisms were very similar to those of "polarly flagellated intermediate strains" in acetic acid bacteria, except for the formation of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol. Some discussions are made on the taxonomic position of these organisms.
In the presence of sublethal concentration of tunicamycin, conidia of fungi belonging to the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus could not germinate and changed to multinuclear giant cells of 10-100μm in diameter. Some of these giant cells could grow and divide. Number of nuclei per cell increased to over 50. When tunicamycin was added to the germinating conidia, the hyphal tips became swollen at first, and then the whole hyphae were swollen showing a "beaded appearance." After removal of tunicamycin, the giant cells germinated and converted to a mycelial form.
Corn starch was better both in the amount of bacteria attached per unit weight of starch and in easiness of handling than other starches from different origin as adsorbent for bacterial attachment. The attachment of bacteria to starch occurred shortly after the addition of starch granules, and a maximum attachment was attained after further 5-min incubation at 38°. The amount of bacteria attached to starch granules was approximately proportional to the quantity of granules added until 2.5% in weight per volume. Effect of environmental factors on the attachment of rumen bacteria to starch was examined. The attachment of bacteria to starch was maximal in a medium containing sodium carbonate above 0.15%. Carbon dioxide as gas phase was far better in the attachment of bacteria to starch than hydrogen and nitrogen gases. There existed bacteria capable of attaching to starch even at 4° or for the first time at above 30°. The amount of bacteria attached to starch was small at 4° and more abundant at 38°. A trial was made to elute bacteria attached to starch granules first with a salt solution and subsequently with Formalin. The results obtained showed that bacteria attached to starch, excepting those attached at 4°, included the following three types of bacteria. The bacteria of thefirst type were those loosely attaching to starch, that were eluted easily with a salt solution. The bacteria of the second type were those firmly attached and were eluted for the first time with Formalin. The bacteria of the third type were those with irreversibly attaching ability, that were not eluted even with Formalin. The most characteristic properties of bacteria attached to starch were their amylase and urease activities. The specific amylase activity of bacteria attached to starch was remarkably high, compared with that of non-attached bacteria. There was little or no specific urease activity of attached bacteria, while that of non-attached bacteria was relatively high. There was no significant difference in the specific activity of other four hyrolases between bacteria attached and non-attached to starch. The actual role of bacteria which are apt to attach to starch in the rumen insitu is also discussed.