The menaquinone systems of 35 strains representing 24 species of the genus Nocardia and its related genera were determined. The genus Nocardia was mainly divided into two groups based on the system of quinones; the tetrahydromultiprenylmenaquinone of MK-8(H4) was found in N. farcinica, N. asteroides, N. brasiliensis, N. coeliaca, N. minima, etc., and the dihydromultiprenyl homolog of MK-8(H2) was in N. rugosa, N. lutea, N. calcarea, N. restricta, N. erythropolis, etc. The others were MK-9(H2)[MK-8(H2)] in N. polychromogenes and N. convoluta, and MK-9(H2) in N. rubropertincta. Anomalous systems of menaquinones were found in N. leishmani [MK-9 (H6)MK-9(H4)], N. turbata or Oerskovia turbata [MK-9(H4)], and N. madurae or Actinomadura madurae showing MK-9(H6)[MK-9(H8)]. Nocardiagardneri or Streptomyces gardneri agreed with N. asteroides in the system of menaquinone. These results obtained here are discussed from the taxonomic point of view.
Two forms of glucoamylase [α-D-(1→4)-glucan glucohydrolase, EC 22.214.171.124] were isolated and purified from the culture of Monascus kaoliang nov. sp. F-1 on wheat bran. These glucoamylases were separated from each other by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or by gel filtration on Sephadex G-150 column. They were designated as GA-I and GA-II in the order of elution from the column. The purified enzymes were homogeneous in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The pH optima of GA-I and -II were found to be 4.5 and 4.7, respectively. GA-I was more resistant than GA-II against treatment with urea or guanidine. The approximate molecular weights by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of GA-I and -II were estimated to be 4.8×104 and 6.8×104, respectively.
RNA synthesized in ultraviolet-irradiated, φ29-infected Bacillus subtilis cells was analyzed by DNA-RNA hybridization, and acrylamide gel electrophoresis. Under the conditions used in this study, φ29-specific RNA is predominantly synthesized, while host RNA synthesis is greatly suppressed. In addition, the incorporation of 3H-uridine into φ29 RNA at early stages of phage development appears to be correlated with multiplicity of infection, and the electrophoretic patterns of RNA extracted from UV-irradiated, infected cells are comparable with those of φ29-specific RNA isolated from unirradiated, infected cells. Analysis of φ29 early RNAs by gel electrophoresis resulted in the detection of at least eight bands ranging in molecular weight from 0.9 to 0.05×106 daltons. Pulse chase experiments showed that at least two large early φ29 RNA molecules are distinguishable from the other small early φ29 RNA species in that these large RNA molecules have a rather short half-life, suggesting that low molecular weight early RNA molecules may be derived from high molecular weight RNA molecules.
A simple and practical method was studied to identify the acyl type of bacterial cell wall. This method is based on the determination of glycolic acid derived from the acid hydrolysis of a small amount of bacterial cells. The devised system with micro-columns was useful for quantitative separation of glycolic acid from complex materials in cell hydrolysate, and glycolic acid was determined by colorimetric method of Calkins. Experiments showed that about 50 to 60nmol of glycolyl residue was present in 1mg dry cells in strains such as Corynebacteriumequi AJ 1402 (ATCC 6939), Brevibacterium imperiale AJ 1446 (IAM 1654), and Brev. testaceum AJ 1464 (IAM 1537), but the acid was scarcely found in Coryn. diphtheriae AJ 1414 (ATCC 11913), Nocardia madurae AJ 9136 (NRRL B-2127), and so on. No acyl group other than glycolyl and acetyl residues or only acetyl group was detected in the purified cell wall of various bacteria tested. From these results it is concluded that bacteria are classified into glycolyl type or acetyl type relative to their cell-wall acyl type, which can be easily decided by estimation of glycolyl group in the whole bacterial cells.
Powdered dry samples of unpolished rice and ginseng (Khumsan) infected with aflatoxinogenic strains of aspergilli were used to measure the courses of growth and aflatoxin production. Estimation of fungal growth on such plant materials was performed by following the incorporation of 14CO2 into cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acid and protein. Continuous labeling with 14CO2 could be adopted more preferably than pulse labeling for the estimation of fungal growth. The results of experiments using either sample infected with Aspergillusparasiticus and A. toxicarius clearly showed that the incorporation of radioactivity into cellular macromolecules ran almost parallel with that of aflatoxin production. The amount of radioactivity incorporated and aflatoxin produced in either sample was equally affected by the atmospheric relative humidity, being the highest under saturated humidity and exhibiting essentially no signs of growth and aflatoxin production under less than 90% relative humidity. Among one cereal and four crude drugs examined, the highest amount of aflatoxin was produced on unpolished rice and ginseng root (Khumsan), and none on Scutellaria root, irrespective of abundant growth of the fungi.