Bacteria which lyse blue-green algae were isolated from soil samples collected from Africa and Japan. The characteristics of one of these bacteria (bacterium MY-1) were electron microscopically investigated. The bacterium was an aflagellate, gram-negative rod. The vegetative cells of Anabaena cylindrica were rapidly decomposed by the action of this bacterium MY-1 and only membranous materials, probably fragments of thylakoid, remained. The inner membranes of akinetes and heterocysts were also digested, leaving the outer membrane or envelope intact.
The infra-red spectra of lyophilized cells of 38 Zymomonas mobilis strains were compared. The broad absorption maxima correspond to those found in other organisms. Strain-specific differences were found in Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis. They were most prominent in the absorption region between 1000 and 1200cm-1 in the strains VP2, Z2, and 70.7. One spectral feature differentiates subsp.pomaceae from subsp. mobilis, i.e., the occurrence of a shoulder at 960cm-1 in the former instead of a distinct peak in the latter.
The presence of ferrisuperoxide dismutase (FeSOD) in several bacteria has been examined by determining the coincidence of 55Fe radiolabel with superoxide dismutase activity using gel electrophoresis. FeSOD was concluded to be present in the matrix space of some gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
Two distinct types of acid phosphatase (PMase) formation were recognized in submerged culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillussojae. One of PMase formation was repressible by inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the medium but the other was promoted by increased concentration of Pi in the medium. These PMase formations were influenced by the pH and pH changes of the medium, and pH 4 to 7 seemed to be adequate. Under the non-proliferating condition in which the pre-cultured mycelium was resuspended in a buffer and shaken, the positive PMase formation was seen after a short lag period, but not in the anaerobic condition. The Pi-repressible PMase formation was not suppressed by the addition of NaF, KCN, or 2, 4-dinitrophenol but was by 8-hydroxyquinoline, and Pi-promoting PMase formation was markedly inhibited by KCN, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and 2, 4-dinitrophenol but not by NaF.
Up to 59.73% yield and 69% conversion coefficient of citric acid were obtained on using Naga-Hammade or Abou-Korkas black strap cane molasses. The molasses was simply clarified by centrifugation and supplemented with 0.2% NH4NO3. Methanol was better than ethanol, and 2.5% methanol was added before inoculation. Inoculation was performed by spraying the spores over the surface of the fermentation medium. Stainless steel trays proved to be resistant to prolonged use against deformation. Addition of potassium ferrocyanide in the presence of 2.5% methanol did not increase the yield of the acid. In the absence of methanol, addition of the ferrocyanide at a concentration of 0.15% doubles the yield of the acid.
The menaquinone system of three species in the genus Actinomadura was determined. Actinomadura madurae and A. pelletieri were found to have the same quinone system comprising MK-9(H6)[MK-9(H4)MK-9 (H8)]. In contrast, several strains classified in A. dassonvillei were different in the chain length and the degree of saturation; they had the MK-10MK-10(H2)[MK-10(H4)] or MK-10(H4)MK-10(H6)[MK-10(H8) MK-9(H4)MK-9(H6)] system. These results obtained are discussed from the taxonomic point of view.
Using bacterial virus MS2 against Escherichia coli, a systematic investigation was conducted to study virus retention by sand. Virus sorption on sand was influenced by water chemistry of the system. Both rate of sorption and sorptive capacity decreased with increase in the system pH in the range of 6.0-8.4. However, the highest virus sorption was observed with a natural ground water high in calcium and magnesium, at pH 7.8. Results of the percolation column test and rapid sand filtration study showed that sand was effective in removing the model virus from percolating water as well as during filtration. It was observed that viruses were not immobilized or inactivated following their retention or removal by sand.