The chemical composition of peptidoglycan in gram-negative obligately anaerobic rods was qualitatively analysed by paper chromatography. meso-Diaminopimeric acid (meso-Dpm), as a constituent of the peptidoglycan, was detected in Bacteroides fragilis, B. vulgatus, B. thetaiotaomicron, B. ruminicola, B. oralis, B. ochraceus, B. melaninogenicus var. melaninogenicus, B. melaninogenicus var. intermedius, B. asaccharolyticus, B. hypermegas, B. multiacidus, Fusobacterium varium, and F. mortiferum by one-dimensional paper chromatography. meso-Dpm was also detected in the cell walls of B. splachnicus, B. succinogenes, and B. amylophilus. Lanthionine (Lan) was demonstrated in the peptidoglycan of F. nucleatum, F. fusiforme, and F. necrophorum. But B. furcosus contained neither meso-Dpm nor Lan. By two-dimensional paper chromatography, it was demonstrated that the peptidoglycan of B. fragilis NCTC 9343, B. ruminicola ATCC 19188, B. ruminicola C 12, B. oralis ATCC 15930, B. oralis J 1, B. ochraceus 2467 B, B. melaninogenicus var. melaninogenicus ATCC 25261, B. melaninogenicus var. intermedius O 33, B. hypermegas ATCC 25560, B. multiacidus ATCC 27723, and F. mortiferum ATCC 9817 contained meso-Dpm, glutamic acid (Glu), alanine (Ala), glucosamine (GlcNH2), and muramic acid (Mur). The peptidoglycan of F. necrophorum ATCC 25286, and F. fusiforme ATCC 23726 contained Lan, Glu, Ala, GlcNH2, and Mur. Several strains of the bacteria mentioned above, further, contained aspartic acid (Asp), Serine (Ser), and Glycine. The peptidoglycan of B. furcosus ATCC 25662 contained Asp, Glu, Ser, Ala, GlcNH2, and Mur.
The development of catalase (EC 1. 11. 1. 6) activity in Saccharomycescerevisiae was repressed by the presence of glucose during aerobic culture. The catalase activity of glucose-grown cells increased about 4 times when the cells were aerobically incubated with yeast extract for 3hr. Two catalases, A and T, were detected in the glucose-grown cells by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the content of catalase A increased with increase of catalase activity by the incubation. The increase of catalase activity was completely inhibited by cycloheximide and not by chloramphenicol. The increase of catalase activity was also markedly repressed by glucose, the repression not being eliminated by 3′, 5′-adenosine monophosphate. Microbody-like granules were detected cytochemically in the glucose-grown cells, but the increase of catalase content was not closely related to the appearance of microbody-like granules.
The addition of 2-deoxy-D-glucose and quinidine to culture media of strain Fisc of Coprinus macrorhizus was effective in inhibiting fruiting body formation and in reducing the intracellular level of cyclic AMP, adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase activities. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose taken into mycelial cells was phosphorylated and accumulated as 2-deoxy-D-glucose- monophosphate and 2-deoxy-D-glucose diphosphate. This phosphorylation appeared to be reversible. Quinidine was taken up by mycelial cells without further metabolism. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, 2-deoxy-D-glucosemonophosphate and quinidine inhibited adenylate cyclase activity, but not phosphodiesterase activity measured in vitro. The Ki values of 2-deoxy-n-glucose and quinidine for adenylate cyclase activity were 1.8 and 0.08mM, respectively. The data indicate a possible relationship between the low adenylate cyclase activity and inhibition of fruiting body formation.
Certain nutritional requirements of isolates of sulfate-reducing bacteria were investigated. Isolates from environments other than digestors were able to grow and be maintained with 0.1% yeast extract, while the isolates from sewage digestors were not. The latter required sewage digestor fluid in addition to 0.1% yeast extract and the sewage digestor fluid could be replaced by yeast extract in higher concentrations for most of the strains. Vitamins, mainly biotin, in the sewage digestor fluids or yeast extract were found to act as growth factors for these strains. Some isolates from sewage digestors could not be maintained with yeast extract even in high concentrations and required sewage digestor fluid.
Phospholipase A in the outer membrane of Erwinia carotovora 645ArT was found to be activated by various detergents such as cholate, deoxycholate and Triton X-100, and methanol. The enzyme was inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and Ca2+ was required for the enzyme activity. The enzyme hydrolyzed phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol to form nearly equimolar amounts of free fatty acids and lysophospholipids. Cardiolipin, however, was not susceptible to the enzyme. In a mutant strain deficient in the phospholipase A activity, the rate of degradation of membrane phospholipid caused by carotovoricin Er, a bacteriocin from Erwinina carotovora strain Er, declined to about 1/10 of that of the parent strain under similar conditions. Lysis caused by carotovoricin Er also diminished in the phospholipase A-deficient mutant. These results imply that carotovoricin Er provokes an activation of phospholipase A in sensitive cells, and subsequently, degradation of membane phospholipid and cell lysis result. Phospholipase A-deficient mutant, however, still retained sensitivity to killing activity of carotovoricin Er. Hence, it could be concluded that activation of phospholipase A is not related to the primary bactericidal action of the bacteriocin.
Previously (1) it was found that bacterial populations developed in capillary tubes inserted into soil consist of offspring of one or a few cells among several hundred cells originally existing at the tip of each tube. From a statistical view, processes of the proliferation of bacteria at microsites of soil structure were characterized as rare events. In the present report, bacteria dispersed into soil suspension were also shown to proliferate in the same way both in capillary tubes and on plates, and colony formation of soil bacteria on counting plates was expected to follow the equation ln (N0-N)=ln N0-λt where N0 is the number of bacteria capable of forming colonies, N, that of colonies found at time t and λ a parameter. Various data on plate counting were shown to fit the equation. Size distribution of colonies on counting plates was also supposed as being interpretable from a statistical view.
ω-Cyclohexyl fatty acids were found in two strains of Curtobacteriumpusillum. ω-Cyclohexyl undecanoic acid constituted 26 to 96% of the total fatty acids in the bacteria. Trace amounts of ω-cyclohexyl tridecanoic acid were also observed. The fatty acids other than the cyclohexyl acids found were 12-methyl tetradecanoic acid, 14-methyl hexadecanoic acid, and trace amounts of several straight chain and methyl-branched fatty acids. The proportion of the ω-cyclohexyl acids increased both with increasing growth temperature and with the increase in the concentration of glucose in the culture medium.