Twenty-eight strains of Alcaligenes faecalis, one strain of Alcaligenesruhlandii, and 10 strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans were characterized by assimilation of 103 carbon compounds, investigation of more than 70 conventional phenotypic characteristics and estimation of DNA base composition. Alcaligenes faecalis was divided into two homogeneous clusters with DNA base compositions of 55.6-58.9mol% and 63.8-68.6mol%, respectively, characterized by assimilation of 35 substrates and 13 other phenotypic features. Alcaligenes faecalis should be confined to the low GC cluster. The high GC cluster corresponded to "Alcaligenes denitrificans, " and could not be distinguished from Alcaligenes ruhlandii and Achromobacter xylosoxidans except for the inability of the strains in the high GC cluster to assimilate carbohydrates. The strains in the low GC cluster were differentiated from other strains by the following attributes: fruity odor formation, greening of blood agar, presence of deaminases for phenylalanine and tryptophan, decomposition of xanthine, formation of dark-brown pigment from tryptophan and histidine, and assimilation of malonate, glycine and phenol, in contrast to the ability of the strains in the high GC cluster to reduce nitrate to nitrite and to assimilate mucate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelate, sebacate, meso-tartrate, itaconate, mesaconate, β-alanine, L-serine, DL-citrulline, and pantothenate. The low GC strains denitrified nitrite, whereas denitrification of nitrate and nitrite by the high GC strains fluctuated.
Soy pediococci, the group of halophilic lactic-acid bacteria occurring numerously in soy-sauce moromi-mash, were found to comprise a large number of heterogenous strains regard to carbohydrate-fermenting ability. Examination of 100 representative strains of soy pediococci for their ability to form acid from 10 carbohydrates revealed the existence of 67 patterns of fermentation among them. Some strains showed different fermentation-patterns from those described for the species Pediococcushalophilus, while they were well consistent with the typical P. halophilus in taxonomic properties other than sugar-fermentation. An effective scheme for the flora analysis of soy pediococci in moromi-mash was developed. It consists of the random isolation of each of 50 or 100 pediococcal colonies from a specimen and the subsequent systematic examination of the whole isolates for their fermentation patterns with five selected carbohydrates, L-arabinose, lactose, melibiose, D-sorbitol and D-mannitol. Several simplifying modifications of the procedure were employed to carry out the numerous test-cultures. Some naturally brewed moromi were analyzed for their pediococcal flora, and the complexity of the flora was demonstrated.
Sporulation genes spoOB and spoOF of Bacillus subtilis were cloned in a temperate phage φ105 using the "prophage transformation" method. The phages obtained (φ105spoOB-2 and φ105spo0F-1) did not form plaques, but multiplied without a helper phage when they were induced. Transduction by these phages depended on the presence of helper phage, suggesting that they were defective in lysogenization. The EcoRI cleavage maps of these phage DNAs were constructed.
Seven strains representative of the five serotypes of group B streptococci were converted to the L-phase by means of penicillin in a liquid medium. The conversion and adaptation to growth in the L-phase of the group B, type III strain 76-043 were studied in detail. This L-phase has been subcultured serially 204 times in liquid medium containing penicillin. Stability of the L-phase was evident by 195 serial subcultures in the absence of penicillin without reversion to the parent bacterial phase. Studies of the kinetics of growth in the cell-wall-defective state showed a lack of correlation between the number of viable units and the turbidity of the culture, as well as a rapid decline in the number of colony-forming units once the minimum pH of the culture was reached. Addition of Na2HPO4 or K2HPO4 to the growth medium did not prevent the sharp decline in the number of viable units. Group B and type III antigens continued to be detected in culture supernatants but not in HCl extracts of cells of the L-phase of strain 76-043. These immunological markers confirmed the precise bacterial origin of the L-phase.
Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate removal of a seeded bacterial virus (MS2 phage) during coagulation (alum and ferric chloride) and direct filtration (coal and activated carbon) of raw settled wastewater as well as coal-sand dual-media filtration of alum coagulated wastewater. The effective system of wastewater treatment with a high degree of virus removal emerged as plain sedimentation followed by alum coagulation and dual-media coal-sand filtration. Alum was found to be superior to ferric chloride as a primary coagulant. Direct filtration of raw settled wastewater through activated carbon or coal did not remove the virus effectively.
Invertase is immobilized on molecular sieve 4A using the metal link method. Crude enzyme preparations gave better recovery of immobilized invertase than partially purified ones, although the number of units bound per g MS was 66% higher with partially purified enzyme. Exposing immobilized enzyme (IME) to high temperatures up to 2hr did not significantly decrease the activity. IME lost 20% activity after storing at room temperature for 2 months. Studies with 6M urea and desorption by ammonium sulfate indicated that the invertase is probably bound to metal activated MS by covalent linkage. MS can be regenerated using a combination of heat and perchloric acid treatments. MS was regenerated and loaded with invertase 5 times and gave identical results with respect to enzyme loading and activity.
The fine structure involved with the nuclear behavior occurring during conjugation and meiosis in the fission yeast Schizasaccharomyees pombe was studied by serial thin sectioning and electron microscopy. A pair of haploid cells conjugated via a cytoplasmic isthmus, where cytoplasmic vesicles accumulated. The fusion of the two nucleii was preceded by the fusion of respective nucleus-associated organelles (NAOs), and the prophase I nucleus, taking an elongated shape with the fused NAO at one end, contained strands of dense linear elements, whose number and distribution were not constant, as seen in the three-dimensional reconstruction of serial sections. The first meiotic division was carried out by the spindle, being a preserved nuclear envelope, in which chromosomal microtubules were found to associate with opposite NAOs connected by the pole-to-pole microtubules. The second meiotic division proceeded almost synchronously in the two separate nuclei, the formation of the forespore membrane beginning at the cytoplasmic side of the differentiated NAO.