The rice-field isolate of Gloeocapsa sp. grew aerobically at the expense of N2 as a nitrogen source and showed DCMU-sensitive aerobic nitrogenase activity under photoautotrophic conditions. The two pre-emergence rice- field herbicides Machete and Basalin strongly inhibited growth, photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogenase activity in Nostoc muscorum in a concentration hardly inhibitory to these processes in Gloeocapsa sp. Ethidium bromide treatment of Gloeocapsa sp. resistant to growth inhibition by Machete and Basalin resulted in non-revertible loss of both herbicide resistant phenotypes (Macr and Basr) without affecting aerobic diazotrophy. The nonrevertible Macs Bass strain resulting from Ethidium bromide treatment of Macr BasrGloeocapsa strain stopped growth, N2- fixation and photosynthetic O2 evolution when inoculated in growth medium containing 10 or 20μg ml-1 of Machete, Basalin or both. These findings suggest that the rice field isolate of Gloeocapsa sp. is a naturally occurring Machete and Basalin resistant (Macr Basr) strain dependent on photosynthesis for aerobic diazotrophy and that the genes for the two herbicide-resistant phenotypes (Macr Basr) are possibly plasmid-borne. The present findings will have a significant bearing on the future of cyanobacterial biotechnology in agriculture.
On the basis of the similarity values in the electrophoretic relative mobility of seven enzymes, the strains of the genera Rhodosporidium, Cystofilobasidium, and Rhodotorula were analyzed numerically. The strains with the ubiquinone Q-10 system were divided into six major clusters, the strains with the Q-9 system into two major clusters, and the strains with the Q-8 system into two major clusters. The strains of Rhodotorula glutinis were clearly separated into four clusters. In the species of the genera Rhodosporidium and Cystofilobasidium, compatible mating-type strains were included in the same clusters. Furthermore, compatible mating-type strains of Rhodosporidium toruloides, Rhodosporidium diobovatum, and Rhodosporidium infirmominiatum, were divided into two subclusters, within the respective species.
The relative amounts of metals in the cell wall of Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum ATCC 13564 were found to be as follows: Fe>Al_??_Mg>K>Na>Ca_??_Zn>Cu>Hg_??_Mn>Co. Of particular note here is the very high Fe content and the specific Fe-binding properties of cell wall. The iron physiology in cell wall was somewhat different from those of Mg and Cu, which were used for comparison. The in vivo accumulation of Fe into cell wall increased vigorously after 6hr of cultivation (early to middle log phase) and continued until the late stage of the log phase (about 15hr). The maximum content was ca. 1100μg/g of dry weight of cell wall, when Fe2+ was supplemented to the medium at 3.6×10-5M. In vivo accumulation of Mg increased in the first 6hr of cultivation, and then decreased. Its maximum content was ca. 360μg/g, when Mg2+ was supplemented at 1.2×10-3M. The accumulation of Fe and Mg was closely related to the cell growth. On the other hand, toxic Cu rapidly bound to cell wall for initial short periods regardless of the growth phase. Its maximum content was ca. 60μg/g when no Cu2+ was added; when Cu2+ was intentionally supplemented at 2×10-5M, its maximum content was ca. 200μg/g. The relative metal binding in cell walls in vitro was in the order of Cu2+>Fe2+>Mg2+. Fe had a high affinity with the peptidoglycan moiety of the cell wall. Mg had some affinity to the polysaccharide moiety of the cell wall. Cu seemed to have a high affinity with some unidentified constituents of the cell wall.
The relationship between sulfate-reduction and the oxidation of various intermediates of anaerobic digestion of animal waste was investigated by incubating cattle waste anaerobically in the presence or absence of sulfate. Propionate oxidation was strongly accelerated by the addition of sulfate, but acetate oxidation was not affected. Lactate, butyrate, and ethanol were oxidized rather rapidly irrespective of the presence of sulfate. Hydrogen gas stimulated both sulfate-reduction and methanogenesis, but it delayed the oxidation of fatty acids. When methanogenesis was inhibited by the addition of chloroform in the presence of sulfate, the sulfate was ordinarily reduced, while the acetate concentration increased. It was concluded that the contribution of acetate as an electron donor for sulfate- reduction was very low in cattle waste. Sulfate-reduction in pig waste and a ditch sediment was also investigated for comparison.
Seven strains of ballistospore-forming yeasts isolated from dead leaves of Oryza sativa L. and Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. were found to represent two new species of the genus Bullera and are described as Bullera derxii Nakase et Suzuki and Bullera pseudoalba Nakase et Suzuki. These yeasts showed some resemblance to Bullera alba in their physiological and biochemical characteristics and DNA base composition. Comparison of the electrophoretic mobilities of six kinds of enzymes clearly demonstrated the differences in these three species.
Sixteen bacterial strains that utilize cholesterol as sole carbon and energy sources were isolated from food of animal origins such as butter, bacon, pork fat, and chicken fat. Morphological, biochemical, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics including cell wall chemotype, cellular fatty acid composition, DNA base composition, and DNA homologies revealed that these isolates belonged to the genus Rhodococcus Zopf. Most of them were identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis (Gray and Thornton) Goodfellow and Alderson and Rhodococcus equi (Magnusson) Goodfellow and Alderson. The cholesterol-degrading ability and extracellular and intracellular cholesterol oxidase activities of these strains were compared with those of related bacteria. Most of the authentic Rhodococcus strains degrade cholesterol. However, the amount of the enzyme varied among the strains, and some isolates produced large amounts of extracellular cholesterol oxidase.
Two new species of ballistospore-forming yeasts isolated from dead leaves of Oryza sativa L. are described as Bullera intermedia Nakase et Suzuki and Sporobolomyces oryzicola Nakase et Suzuki. Unlike the other species of Bullera, Bullera intermedia has Q-9 as its major ubiquinone component. Sporobolomyces oryzicola produces deeply pigmented colonies similar to those of typical species of the genus Sporobolomyces, whereas it forms rotationally symmetrical ballistospores and assimilates 2-keto- and 5-ketogluconic acid.
A taxonomic study below the generic or at the specific level was made of the electrophoretic pattern of seven enzymes in Sterigmatomyces, Fellomyces, and Sterigmatosporidium species. The seven enzymes were glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, hexokinase, phosphoglucomutase, and catalase. All examined strains of S. elviae, S. halophilus (≡S. indicus), and S. polymorphum gave a uniform electrophoretic enzyme pattern within the respective species. Four strains of S. halophilus and three strains of S. halophilus (≡S. indicus) were linked to each other with a similarity value of 43%. The similarity value between S. elviae and S. halophilus was calculated to be only 14%. The three Fellomyces species, F. nectairei, F. penicillatus, and F. polyborus and S. tursiopsis had quite different electrophoretic enzyme patterns. Their similarity values were all 0%. Between F. nectairei and S. polymorphum, the similarity value was only 14%. These data are discussed from the taxonomic point of view.