Four new yeasts, Candida glucosophila from brown sugar, Candidadulciaminis from confectionery, Candida floricola from dandelion and azalea flowers, and Candida vaccinii from blueberry flowers are described on the basis of morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics. C. dulciaminis is considered to be a basidiomycetous yeast.
Obligately acidophilic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from weakly acidic environments such as sewage and soil as well as from acidic mine drainage. In the mine water, the bacterial populations ranged from 0 to 104 cells per ml of water or g of mud, moreover a large number of bacteria (104-106 cells per ml) were isolated from an aeration tank in which ferrous iron in the mine water was being oxidized to ferric iron by iron oxidizing bacteria. Although the population was small, 9 strains of bacteria of this type were found in 106 samples from the sewage and the soils. The bacterial characteristics of the strains isolated from acidic mine drainage were in good agreement with the genus Acidiphilium. However, the characteristics of the bacteria from weakly acidic environments differed from Acidiphilium in the pH growth range and sensitivity to organic substrates. The isolated bacteria were classified into 3 groups based on DNA base composition, cellular fatty acid composition, pH growth range and carbon sources for growth.
Peroxidase activity was detected in Bacillus cereus when the catalase activity has been inhibited by 1mM sodium azide. The peroxidase level was high in late stationary-phase cells just before the accumulation of dipicolinic acid. Ultracytochemical examination indicated that peroxidase was localized in the envelope around the forespore and in the transverse membrane of the cell.
One hundred and eighteen strains of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria, and one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum were investigated with regard to morphological, biochemical, and physiological characteristics. These characteristics were analyzed numerically. The strains were separated into three clusters. Cluster 1 consists of 44 strains including Sporolactobacillusinulinus (2 strains), "Sporolactobacillus laevas" (15 strains), "Sporolactobacilluslaevas var. intermedius" (7 strains), "Sporolactobacillus racemicus" (7 strains), "Bacillus laevolacticus" (12 strains), and "Bacillus racemilacticus" (1 strain). Cluster 2 consists of 70 strains: "B. laevolacticus" (57 strains), "B. racemilacticus" (2 strains), "S. racemicus" (8 strains), "S. laevas" (2 strains), and "S. laevas var. intermedius" (1 strain). Cluster 3 comprises 3 strains including the type strain of Bacillus coagulans and one strain each of "B. laevolacticus" and "B. racemilacticus." One strain of "S. racemicus" and the type strain of Lactobacillus plantarum were not included in the above clusters. The clusters are considered to correspond respectively to the taxa Sporolactobacillus, "Bacillus laevolacticus, " and Bacillus coagulans. Catalase activity and production of acid from lactose and melibiose were useful in differentiating the three clusters.
We studied the DNA base composition and DNA-DNA hybridization of 41 strains of spore-forming, lactic acid-producing bacteria including Sporolactobacillus inulinus. The DNA base composition of 41 strains studied ranged from 42.4 to 50.2mol% guanine plus cytosine. The DNA of S. inulinus NRIC 1133T showed extremely low homology (1 to 5%) to the strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus coagulans, but it showed somewhat higher homology to "Bacillus laevolacticus, " "Bacillusracemilacticus, " "Sporolactobacillus laevas, " "Sporolactobacillus laevas var, intermedius, " and "Sporolactobacillus racemicus" (20-50%). Catalase-negative strains of spore-forming lactic acid bacteria, including the type strain of S. inulinus, showed relatively high homology values to one another and further divided into five groups and considered to be members of the genus Sporolactobacillus.
The genetic relatedness of 60 strains in the basidiomycetous yeast genera Rhodosporidium and Rhodotorula was studied by the DNA-DNA hybridization using the nitrocellulose filter technique. Degrees of the intraspecific reassociation among the DNAs from the strains of Rhodosporidiuminfirmominiatum, Rhodosporidium diobovatum, Rhodosporidiumsphaerocarpum, and Rhodosporidium dacryoidum ranged from 64 to 99%. The mating-type strains of Rhodosporidium toruloides were divided into four homology clusters. The degrees of DNA-DNA reassociation between the mating-type strains and the self-sporulating strains in Rhodosporidiumtoruloides were very low. (18%) indicating the absence of relatedness between them. The strains of Rhodotorula glutinis were divided into five homology clusters. Among these strains, some, including the type strain, showed close relatedness to Rhodosporidium diobovatum, some to Rhodosporidiumtoruloides (self-sporulating), and some to Rhodotorula rubra, and Rhodotorula pilimanae. The strains of Rhodotorula minuta were divided into four homology clusters. A close relationship was found between some strains of Rhodotorula minuta including the type strain and a strain of Rhodotorula pallida. There was a very close relationship between the Rhodotorula sinensis strain and the strains of Rhodosporidiuminfirmominiatum.
A description and two illustrations are presented of a new anamorph genus, Saitoella, in the Cryptococcaceae represented by a single species S. complicata sp. nov. to accommodate two yeast strains isolated from Himalayan soil. These were formerly identified as Rhodotorula glutinis (Fres.) Harrison. This genus can be distinguished from Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Phaffia, Sterigmatomyces, Fellomyces, and Sporobolomyces by a combination of characters. Saitoella is considered to be ascomycetous in the light of a negative Diazonium Blue B (DBB) reaction and a cell wall ultrastructure typical of ascomycetous yeasts; there is probably a close relationship between Saitoella and Taphrinales on the basis of the formation of carotenoid pigments, the absence of xylose in the cells, the DNA base composition in the "grey zone, " a Q-10 uniquinone system, and a negative DBB reaction.