The production of alkaline protease of Aspergillus oryzae U1521 was examined in liquid culture. In a culture of defatted soybean only, it gave satisfactory enzyme yields at 584,000 U/g defatted soybean. When various carbohydrates were supplemented, enzyme production was significantly increased. An increase in production by lactose was the most marked. Enrichment with casitone or casein increased productivity, but not cornsteep solid. Media formulation (g/L) of defatted soybean 10, lactose 5, casitone 1, and KH2PO45 enhanced alkaline protease production by A. oryzae U1521 to a maximum of 1,410,000 U/g defatted soybean. Scaling-up experiments indicated the flask-scale results could be reproduced at 40 g of substrate in 5-L fermenter. The enzyme activity was maximum between pH 8–9 and at a temperature of 45°C.
Previously established PCR amplification and Southern hybridization procedures were developed for the isolation of the 0.8-kb flagellin gene in Pseudomonas putida. The deduced protein sequence has significant homology to the N-and C-terminal sequences of other bacterial flagellins. We propose that P. putida flagellin genes can be divided at least into three size groups: type I (2.0 kb), type II (1.4 kb), and type III (0.8 kb). Type I and type II flagellin genes have been reported. The new 0.8-kb type III gene was expressed in E. coli, and the resulting protein was purified and used to raise polyclonal antibody to study whether this small gene encodes flagellin. The antiserum reacted with purified flagellin monomers from representatives of each flagellin type, as well as proteins of the same sizes in lysates of these organisms, on Western immunoblots. This antiserum was determined to be functional in a motility inhibition assay. Similar results were obtained from antiserum directed against purified type III flagellin, indicating that a new type of flagellin gene in P. putida has been found. Preliminary electron microscopic study revealed that P. putida isolate with the smaller flagellin gene type appeared to have a thinner flagellar filament.
The effect of citric acid metabolism by Xanthomonas campestris on composition of xanthan has been studied. Citric acid consumption in fed-batch and continuous fermentation increased the pyruvic acid content of xanthan. An increase in pyruvic acid content in xanthan has been explained with the help of energy balance in xanthan biosynthesis.