Tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and the production of other related compounds by mixed ruminal bacteria (B), protozoa (P), and their mixture (BP) in an in vitro system were quantitatively investigated by using 1 mM of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) as substrate. Ruminal microorganisms were anaerobically incubated at 39°C for 12 h. Trp and other related compounds in both the supernatants and the microbial hydrolyzates of the incubation were analyzed by HPLC. As a whole, about 334, 440, and 436 μM of Trp were produced from IPA in 12 h by B, P, and BP suspensions, respectively. In the B suspension, a greater portion of synthesized Trp (242 μM) from IPA was accumulated as free form in the medium, whereas a large amount of Trp (92 μM) was incorporated into cell protein in a 12-h incubation. On the other hand, in the P suspension, a large amount of Trp (475 μM) from IPA was also found as free form in the supernatant in a 12-h incubation. Protozoa did not incorporate Trp into cell protein, but they liberated endogenous Trp (34 μM) into the medium. The net productions of Trp from IPA were 344.3 and 447.7 μmol/g of microbial nitrogen in 12 h by B and P suspensions, respectively. The ability of P to synthesize Trp from IPA was about 30% higher than that of B in 12 h. Trp produced from IPA by B, P, and BP suspensions were simultaneously degraded into its related compounds, and among them, indoleacetic acid (IAA) was a major product found in all microbial suspensions. Productions of IAA were 124, 25, and 99 μM from IPA in 12 h by B, P, and BP suspensions, respectively. The formation of indolelactic acid (ILA) from IPA was observed for the first time in all microbial suspensions, and it was about 84, 24, and 54 μM in 12 h by B, P, and BP, respectively. Higher IAA and ILA productions were observed in B when compared with P. A small amount of skatole (SKT) (26 μM) was produced from IPA in B, whereas a sizable amount of SKT (38 μM) was found in BP after a 12-h incubation. p-Cresol (CRL) was also produced from IPA by both B (43 μM) and BP (65 μM) suspensions in 12 h, and this is also the first discovery to show the formation of CRL from IPA by B and BP suspensions. BP suspension was more active to produce both SKT and CRL from IPA, though P suspension has no ability to produce either SKT or CRL from IPA during a 12-h incubation.
Cellular polyamine fraction of alkaliphilic Bacillus species was analyzed by HPLC. 2-Phenylethylamine was found selectively and ubiquitously in the five strains belonging to Bacillus cohnii within 27 alkaliphilic Bacillus strains. A large amount of this aromatic amine was produced by the decarboxylation of L-phenylalanine in the bacteria and secreted into the culture medium. The production of 2-phenylethylamine may serve for the chemotaxonomy of alkaliphilic Bacillus.
The relationship of acid adaptation to the resistance of other environmental stresses was examined in Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Acid-adapted cells were found to have increased resistance to various stresses, including heat, crystal violet, bile, and deoxy cholic acid. However, heat-adapted cells showed no increased resistance against acid stress. Adaptation required protein synthesis, since treatment with chloramphenicol during adaptation to pH 5.3 prevented the development of acid resistance. Acid-adapted cells showed an increased amount of outer membrane protein with an apparent molecular weight of 27,000. These results show that acid-induced cross-protection involved changes in outer membrane protein composition and the known enhancement of intracellular pH homeostasis.
A 36-kDa trypsin inhibitor was purified from Clostridium botulinum type E culture supernatant by multiple molecular sieve and ion exchange chromatographic steps. The sequence of the amino-terminal 13 amino acid residues of this single-chain protein is Asn.Gln.Glu.Val.Phe.Asn.Met.Pro.Lys.Phe.Ser.Thr.Ala—. This novel protein that also inhibits chymotrypsin is produced by an organism that does not appear to produce any protease.
During a study on the effect of DL-serine hydroxamate on Corynebacterium glutamicum (JCM1318, a wild strain), a mutant resistant to the drug, strain TO3002, was isolated. This mutant accumulated five Ehrlich's reagent positive fluorescent substances in the culture medium. Two major and one minor fluorescent products were isolated by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography following charcoal column chromatography from the culture supernatant. One major product was identified as anthranilic acid whose molecular ion was confirmed to be 137 by a measurement of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and NMR spectrum coincided with that of anthranilic acid. LC-MS spectra of another major and the minor product showed that they had the same molecular weight of 299. This major product was supported to be N-glucosylanthranilic acid (N-o-carboxyphenyl-1-β-glucosylamine) by two-dimensional 1H and 13C NMR analyses. The minor product was speculated to be an Amadori compound derived from N-glucosylanthranilic acid. N-Glucosylanthranilic acid accumulated in the early phase, then decreased in the late phase of the culture. In contrast, the accumulation of anthranilic acid increased remarkably in the late phase of the fermentation. Based on this phenomenon, it was assumed that N-glucosylanthranilic acid once accumulated was decomposed to form anthranilic acid, at least in large part, with the progress of fermentation. The strain TO3002 showed a leaky requirement for L-tryptophan or indole (but did not for anthranilic acid) and resistance to DL-serine hydroxamate.
Fifty-four isolates of lactic acid bacteria were obtained from the intestines of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and freshwater prawns (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) in Nakorn-Pathom Province, Thailand. All isolates were Gram-positive and catalase-negative cocci that did not produce gas from glucose and formed DL or L(+) lactic acid only. Most isolates were able to grow in broth at pH 9.6, in 6.5% NaCl (w/v) and 40% (w/v) bile. These isolates were divided into six groups (A–F) by sugar fermentation patterns. Strains in the groups A, B, C, and D showed intergroup DNA homology values of above 73.8%, indicating that these groups were composed of a single species. Following phylogenetic analysis, strains E 1, E 7, and E 26 from groups A, E, and F were placed in the clusters of the genera Lactococcus, Pediococcus, and Enterococcus, respectively. The type strains of Lactococcus garvieae, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium were the most closely related species with E 1, E 7, and E 26 in the phylogenetic tree, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization results indicated that strains in groups A (including groups B, C, and D), E, and F could be identified as belonging to the species Lactococcus garvieae, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. Lactococcus garvieae was the dominant member of the population, accounting for 90.7% of the isolates.
Yeast strains from the genera Candida, Debaryomyces, Aureobasidium, Geotrichum, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Tremella, Hanseniaspora, and Cryptococcus were isolated from samples of a gold mine from liquid extraction circuit. These strains were tested for their ability to utilize acetonitrile at 12 mM as the sole nitrogen source. The yeasts that grew using acetonitrile at 12 mM were tested in the presence of acetonitrile, isobutyronitrile, methacrylnitrile, and propionitrile at concentrations of 12, 24, 48, 97, and 120 mM. One strain was selected for each nitrile and the concentration of nitrile in which the best growth occurred. Cryptococcus sp. strain UFMG-Y28 had a better growth on 120 mM propionitrile and 97 mM acetonitrile, Rhodotorula glutinis strain UFMG-Y5 on 48 mM methacrylnitrile, and Cryptococcus flavus strain UFMG-Y61 on 120 mM isobutyronitrile. The utilization of different nitriles and amides by yeast strains involves hydrolysis in a two-step reaction mediated by both inducible and intracellular nitrile hydratase and amidase.