In the present paper, the taxonomic classification of 134 lactobacilli isolates from vaginal samples of 200 women of Tucumán, Argentina, is reported. They were clustered in three metabolic groups of the genus Lactobacillus, most belonging to the obligately homofermentative group (56%), mainly represented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii and L. acidophilus. In the facultatively heterofermentative group (24%), the dominant species were L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and L. agilis, and in the obligately heterofermentative group (20%), L. brevis was the dominant species. All strains were studied for surface characteristics and adhesion-predicting properties. A correlation between the methods employed for hydrophobicity testing of the different isolates (Microbial Adhesion to Hydrocarbons and Salt Aggregation Test) is reported. Most strains were highly hydrophobic. Their hemagglutination capability with human erythrocytes was also tested, which was positive only for a few strains. Some isolates were self-aggregating. From our results, strains that shared the properties assayed were selected for further testing of some other desirable characteristics, such as antagonistic substance production, adhesion to biological substrates, and appropriate technological properties, to suggest the elaboration of a probiotic for the vaginal tract.
A method was developed for the fast screening and selection of high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains from root nodules of Prosopis juliflora growing in alkaline soils. The high-temperature tolerant rhizobia were selected from 2,500 Rhizobium isolates with similar growth patterns on yeast mannitol agar plates after 72 h incubation at 30 and 45°C, followed by a second screening at 47.5°C. Seventeen high-temperature tolerant rhizobial strains having distinguishable protein band patterns were finally selected for further screening by subjecting them to temperature stress up to 60°C in yeast mannitol broth for 6 h. The high-temperature tolerant strains were NBRI12, NBRI329, NBRI330, NBRI332, and NBRI133. Using this procedure, a large number of rhizobia from root nodules of P. juliflora were screened for high-temperature tolerance. The assimilation of several carbon sources, tolerance to high pH and salt stress, and ability to nodulate P. juliflora growing in a glasshouse and nursery of the strains were studied. All five isolates had higher plant dry weight in the range of 29.9 to 88.6% in comparison with uninoculated nursery-grown plants. It was demonstrated that it is possible to screen in nature for superior rhizobia exemplified by the isolation of temperature-tolerant strains, which established effective symbiosis with nursery-grown P. juliflora. These findings indicate a correlation between strain performance under in vitro stress in pure culture and strain behavior under symbiotic conditions. Pure culture evaluation may be a useful tool in search for Rhizobium strains better suited for soil environments where high temperature, pH, and salt stress constitutes a limitation for symbiotic biological nitrogen fixation.
Microbial quinone compositions of sediment mud samples from five different lakes in Japan were studied by spectrochromatography and mass spectrometry. The total quinone content of these samples ranged from 1.97 to 18.0 nmol/g dry weight of sediment, of which a combined fraction of ubiquinones and menaquinones accounted for 42 to 74%. The remaining fraction (26 to 58%) consisted of the photosynthetic quinones, plastoquinones and phylloquinone. The sediment samples produced PQ-9 or Q-8 as the most abundant quinone type regardless of their geographic locations and depths. These results indicate that oxygenic phototrophic microorganisms and Q-8-containing proteobacteria constituted major parts of microbial populations in the lake sediment. In the surface water of the same sampling sites, plastoquinones and phylloquinone occurred in much higher proportions. These findings suggested that the high abundance of oxygenic phototrophs in the sediment muds resulted from their constant movement or sedimentation from the surface water. Numerical analyses of the quinone profiles showed that the microbial communities of the sediment were diverse and different in different lakes but similar to each other in the diversity of bioenergetic modes. Three physiological groups of microbes showing ubiquinone-mediated aerobic respiration, oxygenic photosynthesis, and menaquinone-associated respiration were suggested to inhabit the lake sediments in balance.
Phylogenetic relationships of 33 Candida species containing galactose in the cells were investigated by using 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Galactose-containing Candida species and galactose-containing species from nine ascomycetous genera were a heterogeneous assemblage. They were divided into three clusters (II, III, and IV) which were phylogenetically distant from cluster I, comprising 9 galactose-lacking Candida species, C. glabrata, C. holmii, C. krusei, C. tropicalis (the type species of Candida), C. albicans, C. viswanathii, C. maltosa, C. parapsilosis, C. guilliermondii, and C. lusitaniae, and 17 related ascomycetous yeasts. These three clusters were also phylogenetically distant from Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which contains galactomannan in its cell wall. Cluster II comprised C. magnoliae, C. vaccinii, C. apis, C. gropengiesseri, C. etchellsii, C. floricola, C. lactiscondensi, Wickerhamiella domercqiae, C. versatilis, C. azyma, C. vanderwaltii, C. pararugosa, C. sorbophila, C. spandovensis, C. galacta, C. ingens, C. incommunis, Yarrowia lipolytica, Galactomyces geotrichum, and Dipodascus albidus. Cluster III comprised C. tepae, C. antillancae and its synonym C. bondarzewiae, C. ancudensis, C. petrohuensis, C. santjacobensis, C. ciferrii (anamorph of Stephanoascus ciferrii), Arxula terrestris, C. castrensis, C. valdiviana, C. paludigena, C. blankii, C. salmanticensis, C. auringiensis, C. bertae, and its synonym C. bertae var. chiloensis, C. edax (anamorph of Stephanoascus smithiae), Arxula adeninivorans, and C. steatolytica (synonym of Zygoascus hellenicus). Cluster IV comprised C. cantarellii, C. vinaria, Dipodascopsis uninucleata, and Lipomyces lipofer. Two galactose-lacking and Q-8-forming species, C. stellata and Pichia pastoris, and 5 galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. apicola, C. bombi, C. bombicola, C. geochares, and C. insectalens, were included in Cluster II. Two galactose-lacking and Q-9-forming species, C. drimydis and C. chiropterorum, were included in Cluster III.
To clarify phylogenetic relationships among species of the anamorphic ascomycetous genus Candida with ubiquinone Q-8, we determined complete sequences of 18S ribosomal RNA genes (18S rDNAs) from the type strains of 20 species of the genus Candida and 7 of the teleomorphic ascomycetous genera Pichia and Citeromyces, which have Q-8 as the major ubiquinone. Q-8-forming Candida species were divided into six clusters and were phylogenetically distant from a group of Candida species that included the type species of the genus. One Q-8-forming species from each of the genera Pichia, Citeromyces, or Clavispora was included in five of six clusters. Cluster 1 comprised C. ishiwadae, C. ernobii, C. karawaiewii, C. anatomiae, C. populi, and Pichia holstii. Cluster 2 comprised C. globosa and its teleomorph, Citeromyces matritensis. Cluster 3 comprised C. molischiana and Pichia capsulata. Cluster 4 comprised C. silvanorum, C. sequanensis, C. fennica, C. entomophila, C. homilentoma, C. rhagii, C. gotoi, and Pichia burtonii. Cluster 5 comprised C. fructus, C. musae, and C. lusitaniae (anamorph of Clavispora lusitaniae). Cluster 6 comprised C. stellata, C. lactiscondensi, C. galacta, and C. incommunis and was a heterogeneous group with large interspecific divergence. Pichia pastoris was quite divergent and phylogenetically distant from other Pichia species examined. Pichia methanolica and its synonym, P. cellobiosa, which have both Q-7 and Q-8 as major ubiquinones, were closely associated with Q-7-forming Williopsis salicorniae. Based on this comparative analysis of 18S rDNA sequences, it is evident that Q-8 Candida species and Q-8 Pichia species are polyphyletic.
The isolation of poly-(L-lactide) (PLA)-degrading microorganisms was investigated. A PLA-degrading actinomycete, strain No. 3118, was isolated and tentatively identified as a member of the genus Amycolatopsis. The optimum conditions for degradation of PLA were 43°C at about pH 7 in a mineral salt medium with a low concentration of organic nutrients (0.002% yeast extract). The original shape of PLA film (Mw=2.3×105 after sterilization, 20μm thick) disappeared within 2 weeks. Lactic acid was detected after the film was incubated with culture supernatant.
“Corynebacterium aquaticum” was first proposed by Leifson in 1962 but not included in the approved lists of bacterial names in 1980. This species has been left from reclassification of the genus Corynebacterium because of the unusual chemotaxonomic characteristics such as 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) in the peptidoglycan and menaquinones of MK-10 and MK-11. A close relationship of “C. aquaticum” to the genera Agromyces and Rathayibacter has been pointed out from the viewpoint of chemotaxonomic profiles and phylogeny based on the 16S rDNA sequences. An analysis of DAB isomers of the peptidoglycan distinguished “C. aquaticum” clearly from these genera by possessing both L-DAB and D-DAB. We also found that the type strain of Clavibacter xyli subsp. cynodontis and two strains of amine-decomposing bacteria showed the similar chemotaxonomic features and formed a cluster with “C. aquaticum” in the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rDNA sequences in the family Microbacteriaceae. Considering these results, we propose a new genus Leifsonia to accommodate the four strains. The four species, Leifsonia aquatica sp. nov., nom. rev., comb. nov. (type species, type strain=JCM 1368), Leifsonia shinshuensis sp. nov. (type strain=DB102=JCM 10591), Leifsonia naganoensis sp. nov. (type strain=DB103=JCM 10592), and Leifsonia cynodontis comb. nov. (type strain=JCM 9733=ICMP 8790), were proposed here for the strains.