Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has five cyclin-dependent protein kinases (Cdks), Cdc28, Srb10, Kin28, Ctk1, and Pho85. Any of these Cdks requires a cyclin partner for its kinase activity and a Cdk/cyclin complex, thus produced, phosphorylates a set of specific substrate proteins to exert its function. The cyclin partners of Srb10, Kin28, and Ctk1 are Srb11, Ccl1, and Ctk2, respectively. In contrast to the fact that each of Srb10, Kin28, and Ctk1 has a single cyclin partner, Cdc28 and Pho85 are polygamous; Cdc28 has 9 cyclins and Pho85 has 10 cyclins. Among these Cdks, Kin28 and Cdc28 are essential Cdks and it is well known that Cdc28 kinase plays a major role in regulating cell cycle progression. Pho85 is a non-essential Cdk but its absence causes a broad spectrum of phenotypes such as constitutive expression of PHO5, inability to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources, defects in cell cycle progression, and so on. Pho85 homologues are expanding to higher eukaryotes. Pho85 is most closely related with Cdk5 in terms of the amino acid sequence. The functional analysis of the domains of Pho85 also supports the close relationship between Pho85 and Cdk5, in which it was shown that the method of regulation of these two kinases is similar. Furthermore, forced expression of the mammalian CDK5 gene in a pho85Δ strain canceled a part of the pho85 defects. In this review, we summarize the functions of both Pho85/cyclin kinase and emphasize yeast Pho85 as valuable model systems to elucidate the functions of their homologues in other organisms.
Forty-six strains of acetic acid bacteria newly isolated from flowers, fruits, and fermented foods collected in Indonesia were taxonomically studied. They were Gram-negative rods, produced acetic acid from ethanol, oxidized acetate and lactate to CO2 and H2O, and had Q-9 as the major ubiquinone system. On the basis of DNA-DNA similarity, all strains studied, including type strains and reference strains of the genus Acetobacter, were separated into eleven groups (Groups I to XI). Of the 46 isolates, two isolates were included in Group II and identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus, five in Group IV as A. orleanensis, 16 in Group V as A. lovaniensis, five in Group VII as A. indonesiensis, and three in Group VIII as A. tropicalis. The remaining 15 isolates constituted three new groups based on DNA-DNA similarity; four isolates were included in Group IX, two in Group X, and nine in Group XI. No isolates were identified as A. aceti (Group I), A. peroxydans (Group III), and A. estunensis (Group VI). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences of representative strains of the Groups indicated belonging to the strains of the genus Acetobacter. On the basis of DNA base composition, DNA-DNA similarity, and 16S rDNA sequences, three new species of the genus Acetobacter are proposed: Acetobacter syzygii sp. nov. for Group IX, Acetobacter cibinongensis sp. nov. for Group X, and Acetobacter orientalis sp. nov. for Group XI. The distribution of Acetobacter strains in Indonesia is discussed in light of isolation sources.
Escherichia coli DegP is an inducible serine protease which is involved in the breakdown of abberant proteins arising in the periplasmic compartment. Overexpression of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA) increased transcription of degP by twofold. To examine the significance of its induction, we overexpressed PhoA in a mutant strain deficient in the degP gene. Upon PhoA overexpression, the degP mutant produced a smaller amount of active PhoA, about one half of the enzymatic activity of its isogenic wild-type strain, and accumulated a larger amount of its precursor, indicating that degP is required for efficient export of overexpressed PhoA. Pulse-chase experiment showed that PhoA overexpression in the absence of degP causes a severe defect in the export of several proteins tested. Examination of the synthesis and the accumulation of the phoA gene products revealed that a part of them, synthesized in the wild-type strain, undergoes relatively rapid proteolysis and that degP is necessary for such a process. From these results, we discuss a possible role of DegP in facilitating protein export under stress conditions.