A total of 25 isolates from root nodules of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban), a tuber-producing leguminous plant, were characterized. All isolates formed effective nodules mainly on lateral roots while edible tubers were developed on the taproot. The root nodules formed were identified as the typical determinate type. By an analysis of the partial sequences of the 16SrRNA gene (approximately 300 bp) of 10 strains which were selected randomly, the isolated root nodule bacteria of yam bean were classified into two different genera, Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium. Two strains, YB2 (Bradyrhizobium group) and YB4 (Rhizobium group) were selected and used for further analyses. The generation time of each strain was shown to be 22.5 h for strain YB2 and 0.8 h for strain YB4, respectively. Differences between strains YB2 and YB4 were also reflected in the bacteroid state in the symbiosome. Symbiosome in nodule cells for the strain YB4 contained one bacteroid cell in a peribacteroid membrane, whereas a symbiosome for strain YB2 contained several bacteroid cells.
Ozone appeared to inhibit growth and caused the death of gram negative and gram positive tested bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. Bacterial cultures at 103, 104, 105, 106, and 107 cfu/ml dilution were exposed to 0.167/mg/min/L of ozone at different time intervals (0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min). Cell viability was observed in all types of tested bacteria at 103, 104, 105 cfu/ml within 30 min after ozone exposure. However, cell inactivation was not significantly observed at concentrations of 106, 107 cfu/ml even after an exposure of 150 min. Ultrastructural changes of treated bacteria showed deformation, rough damage and surface destruction revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Some bacterial cells showed collapsed and shrunken patterns within 60 min and severe rupture and cellular lysis after 90 min of ozone treatment. This study supports the proposed mechanism of the bacteria inactivation by ozone that caused cell membrane destruction and finally lysis reaction. Thus, the precaution of using ozone as a biocide should be used to address appropriate concentrations of bacterial contamination in water.
Fourteen sphere-shaped and 30 rod-shaped lactic acid bacteria were isolated from soy sauce mash of two factories in Thailand. These strains were separated into two groups, Group A and Group B, by cell shape and DNA-DNA similarity. Group A contained 14 tetrad-forming strains, and these strains were identified as Tetragenococcus halophilus by DNA similarity. Group B contained 30 rod-shaped bacteria, and they were further divided into four Subgroups, B1, B2, B3, and B4, and three ungrouped strains by phenotypic characteristics and DNA similarity. Subgroup B1 contained 16 strains, and these strains were identified as Lactobacillus acidipiscis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B2 included two strains, and the strains were identified as Lactobacillus farciminis by DNA similarity. Subgroup B3 contained five strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus by DNA similarity. The strains tested produced DL-lactic acid from D-glucose. Subgroup B4 contained four strains. The strains had meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, and they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum by DNA similarity. Two ungrouped strains were homofermentative, and one was heterofermentative. They showed a low degree of DNA similarity with the type strains tested, and were left unnamed. The distribution of lactic acid bacteria in soy sauce mash in Thailand is discussed.
Dense microbial mats and streamers of various colors developed in an alkaline-hot spring water at 48–76°C and ~0.077 mM sulfide in Nakabusa, Japan. The microbial community structures with a thermal gradient were compared by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. The sequence analysis revealed that a predominant cyanobacterial DGGE band phylogenetically related to Synechococcus elongatus was detected only from green mats at 48°C. Four DGGE bands were detected commonly from green mats at 48°C, orange mats at 58°C and brown mats at 60°C. The sequence analysis revealed that these were phylogenetically related to Chloroflexaceae group, Rhodothermus group, a candidate division OP10, and an unclassified bacterium. On the other hand, Aquificae-, Thermodesulfobacteria-, Thermus group-, and Crenarchaeota-like sequences were detected as a predominant component of DGGE profiling from the streamers only at temperatures over 66°C, but no phototrophic bacterial bands were detected. Thus, the microbial community structure above 60°C was drastically different from that at the lower temperatures. After the addition of hydrogen into in vitro gray streamers with in situ spring water, sulfide production markedly occurred in the presence of ambient sulfate at 66°C. This result suggests that in situ sulfide is partly produced by Thermodesulfobacteria-like sulfate-reducing bacteria in the streamers.
The 3′-noncoding region of the priB gene derived from the basidiomycete Lentinus edodes was found to contain one GC box-like sequence, two CAAT boxes, two TATA box-like sequences and two pyrimidine-rich stretches (CT-motifs). It also contained a 16-bp sequence similar to the consensus sequence for PRIB protein binding and a short (61 bp) intron. Single-strand-specific S1 nuclease analysis of plasmid pBR322 DNA containing the 3′-noncoding region propagated in Escherichia coli revealed that this region forms an unusual, extended open structure within/around the downstream pyrimidine/purine (CT/AG)-biased sequence. To examine the promoter activity of the priB 3′-noncoding region in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which an autonomously replicating plasmid vector is available, we constructed two plasmids, YEp3′NCR-lacZ and YEp3′UTR-lacZ. The former contains the priB 3′-noncoding region and the reporter E. coli β-galactosidase gene while the latter contains the priB 3′-noncoding region lacking the intron and the reporter gene. The yeast transformants obtained through introductions of these plasmids showed β-galactosidase activity and the activity conferred by YEp3′NCR-lacZ was about 50% of that conferred by YEp3′UTR-lacZ. The primer extension analysis showed that transcription of the reporter gene on both plasmids starts at three alternative sites all of which are located within the downstream CT-motif, suggesting a role for the unusual structure of the CT/AG-biased sequence in the initiation of transcription.