Three denitrifying strains of bacteria capable of degrading poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) were isolated from activated sludge and characterized. All of the isolates had almost identical phenotypic characteristics. They were motile gram-negative rods with single polar flagella and grew well with simple organic compounds, as well as with PHB and PHBV, as carbon and energy sources under both aerobic and anaerobic denitrifying conditions. However, none of the sugars tested supported their growth. The cellular fatty acid profiles showed the presence of C16:1ω7cis and C16:0 as the major components and of 3-OH-C10:0 as the sole component of hydroxy fatty acids. Ubiquinone-8 was detected as the major respiratory quinone. A 16S rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the family Comamonadaceae, a major group of β-Proteobacteria, but formed no monophyletic cluster with any previously known species of this family. The closest relative to our strains was an unidentified bacterium strain LW1 (=DSM 13225) (99.9% similarity), reported previously as a 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene degrading bacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization levels among the new isolates were more than 60%, whereas those between our isolates and strain DSM 13225 were less than 50%. The G+C content of genomic DNA of the new strains was 64 to 65 mol%. Based on these results, we concluded that the PHBV-degrading denitrifying isolates should be classified as a new genus and a new species, for which we propose the name Diaphorobacter nitroreducens. The type strain is strain NA10B (=JCM 11421=CIP 107294). We also propose to classify strain DSM 13225 as a genospecies of Diaphorobacter.
The marine gram-negative non-photosynthetic bacterium, Agrobacterium ferrugineum IAM 12616T forms one cluster with the species of the photosynthetic genus Rhodobacter in phylogenetic trees based on molecules of 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and DNA gyrases. Agrobacterium ferrugineum and Rhodobacter species are similar in that growth occurs without NaCl in the culture medium (optimal NaCl concentration for growth of P. ferrugineus is 1%) and their major hydroxy fatty acid compositions are 3-hydroxy decanoic acids (3-OH 10:0) and 3-hydroxy tetradecanoic acids (3-OH 14:1). However, A. ferrugineum differs from Rhodobacter species in G+C content (58 mol% in A. ferrugineum versus 64–73 mol% in Rhodobacter species), in having an insertion in its 16S rRNA gene sequence, and in lacking photosynthetic abilities, bacteriochlorophyll a and intracytoplasmic membrane systems. Furthermore, experiments using PCR and Southern hybridization show that A. ferrugineum does not have puhA gene and puf genes localized near the opposite ends of the photosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus. It suggests that A. ferrugineum may not have any genes for photosynthesis. We propose the transfer of A. ferrugineum IAM 12616T to the genus Pseudorhodobacter gen. nov. as Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus comb. nov. Although Pseudorhodobacter ferrugineus disturbs the phylogenetic monophyly of the genus Rhodobacter, this taxonomic proposal seems adequate until it has been clarified whether P. ferrugineus possesses an incomplete photosynthetic apparatus.
The actinomycete strain KH-614 was antagonistic to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Based on the diaminopimelic acid (DAP) type, morphological and physiological characteristics examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), KH-614 was confirmed as belonging to the genus Streptomyces. Based on the 16S rDNA nucleotide sequences, Streptomyces sp. KH-614 was found to have a relationship with Streptomyces lydicus. The production of antibiotic from this strain was most favorable when cultured in glucose, polypeptone, yeast extract (PY) medium for 6 days at 27°C. The antibiotic was identified as a cyclo(L-leucyl-L-prolyl) by comparing it with the reported spectral data including MS and NMR. Cyclo(leu-pro) was found to be active against twelve VRE strains, including E. faecium (vanA, vanB), and E. faecalis (vanA, vanB), that had been isolated over a period three years (1998–2000). Cyclo(leu-pro) was especially effective against VRE strains such as E. faecalis (K-99-34), E. faecalis (K-00-184), E. faecalis (K-00-221), and the MIC values were 12.5 μg/ml. Moreover, cyclo(leu-pro) was effective against three leukemic cell lines at concentrations below 100 μg/ml. At 100 μg/ml cyclo(leu-pro), K562, HL60, and U937 leukemic cell lines showed growth inhibition of 95, 91, and 93%, respectively. In a normal cell line, MDBK, cyclo(leu-pro) exerted 24% growth inhibition at a concentration of 100 μg/ml, and showed no inhibitory activity at concentrations below 10 μg/ml. These results indicate that cyclo(leu-pro) is a potential anti-leukemic and anti-VRE agent.
An industrially applied rifamycin B-producing strain, Amycolatopsis mediterranei XC 1-02, was used for further screening. A special mutation and screening procedure was adopted to select a strain, which can alleviate the inhibition caused by both aromatic amino acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in the pathway of rifamycin B biosynthesis as well as enhance the production of propionate, one of the precursors of rifamycin B biosynthesis. By the above methods, a strain A. mediterranei XC 9-25 was obtained, and its rifamycin B productivity in shaking flask reaches 10 g/L, which is 2.38 times higher than that of the ancestral strain XC 1-02. The productivity of rifamycin B fed-batch fermentation in 60,000 L fermentor with A. mediterranei XC 9-25 reached 19.11 g/L.
Strain IAM 14872, isolated from wastewater in Thailand, is capable of producing polyhydroxyalkanoate. This bacterium is Gram-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic and highly motile with a single polar flagellum. Both oxidase and catalase activities are positive. The G+C content of DNA is 67.5% and Q-10 is the major quinone. The major cellular fatty acids are C18:1ω7c, 2-OH C18:0 and 3-OH C14:0. On the basis of the 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic properties, it is proposed that the strain IAM 14872 be classified in a new genus as Tistrella mobilis gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is IAM 14872T (=TISTR 1108T).
Two strains of ballistoconidiogenous yeasts that contain xylose and form Q-10 ubiquinone were isolated from plant leaves collected in Taiwan and were found to represent two new species. The taxonomic properties of both coincide with the genus Bullera so they are described as Bullera taiwanensis sp. nov. and Bullera formosensis sp. nov. In a phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of 18S ribosomal DNAs, these two species are distant from the clusters where the remaining members of the genus Bullera are located, i.e., Bullera taiwanensis is located in the Filobasidium lineage (Filobasidiales clade) and Bullera formosensis is located in the Cryptococcus humicola-Trichosporon lineage (Trichosporonales clade).