The comparative studies on the morphological and physiological characteristics of the cultures of blastmycin and antimycin A sources indicated that most of the strains may be related to each other. This idea was confirmed by the marked cross precipitin reactions of these organisms. They may be classified into three groups A, B-1 and B-2. The antimycin A-producing organism belongs to the former group and the blastmycin ones to the latter two groups. The absorption tests and OUCHTERLONY's gel diffusion methods suggested that three groups of the streptomyces may be serologically independant. The antigenic structure of the strain No. 455-D1 appear to be more complicated than those of the strains No. 2A-720 and No. 709-A1. They contain the specific antigen(s) and common antigen(s). A strain of antimycin A sources was observed to belong to the species Streptomyces griseus. It showed no cross precipitin reactions with the other organisms.
1. Various forms of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae were isolated from mud samples collected from various districts of southern and eastern Asia. Some of these algae were obtained in bactera-free pure culture (Tolypothrixtenuis, Calothrix brevissima, Anabaenopsis circularis and Nostoc sp.). 2. The ubiquitous distribution of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae throughout tropical, subtropical and temperate regions was discovered. The frequency of their occurrence, however, seemed to be more prominent in the southern than in the northern parts of the areas studied. 3. The capacity of 16 species of blue-green algae for assimilating atmospheric nitrogen was determined by chemical analysis. 4. The nitrogen-fixing capacity of three representatives of nitrogen-fixers, Tolypothrix tenuis, Calothrix brevissima and Anabaenopsis circularis, was measured with the use of 15N-enriched nitrogen.
One hundred and sixty-three strains of Rhodotorula were isolated from the air of dairies and cowsheds in Osaka Prefecture. Many of them were identified as Rhodotorula glutinis and less were as Rht. Rubra. Besides these strains, one new lactose assimilating Rhodotorula was found. It was proposed to name this microorganism Rhodotorula lactosa sp. nov. In regard to the new yeast and the six known lactose utilizing Rhodotorula, a comparison was made on morphological and physiological properties, as well as the vitamin requirement.
A rheological method for the evaluation of volume fraction (φ) of cell suspensions is discussed with special regard to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental results can be fitted by a quadratic expression of φ as it is expected when Einstein's formula for a suspension of rigid and spherical particles is referred to. The coefficients however, seem to assume values different from the theoretical ones. As examples of direct application, growth curves and osmotic volume changes are shown to give, thereby, 1.2×10-1 mol/l as the equivalent osmotic pressure of a yeast cell. The correct value of φ thus obtained might also serve to compute various other cell quantities from observed physico-chemical properties of the whole suspension.
Some additional data were presented concerning the chemical nature of the sulfur-containg peptide-nucleotide complex, which has been the subject of our recent investigations; (i) paperchromatographic data of the sulfur-containing peptide and a non-peptide sulfur substance isolated by anion-exchange chromatograpy from the TCA-extract of Chlorella and Saccharomycesformosensis, (ii) paperchromatographic and spectrophotometric data of the UV-absorbing components contained in the complex in question, and (iii) electrophoretic data of the ethanol-treated TCA-extract of Chlorella showing the effects of ethanol upon the forces binding the sulfur and UV-absorbing substances together to form the complex.
1. An "open bubbling culture system" was devised for the mass-culture of a blue-green alga, Tolypothrix tenuis, with the special purpose of using the organism as a new green-manure in the paddy fields of this country. 2. To minimize the cost of production, the utilization of natural resources was intended, using hot spring water and natural gas (methane) as the heat and carbon dioxide sources. The heat of combustion of the natural gas (to make carbon dioxide) was also used in warming the culture. 3. The growth rate of the alga obtained with this culture equipment (250 1 culture volume, 5 square meter surface) amounted to 6.4g (dry weight) per square meter per day, i.e., a yield of 7.0 tons of the alga per annum. 4. The prospect of practical application of the system was discussed on the basis of the experimental results obtained.
The authors have isolated a tetrad forming cocci from "Shôyu Moromi" which is revealed to be the main lactic acid bacteria in the mash and is concluded to belong to one species of the genus Pediococcus. This species has been recognized to be a new species different from known species described in the literature from a comparison of the taxonomical properties investigated. Pediococcus soyae nov. sp. has been proposed as the specific name.
A pleomorphic strain, Lactobacillus delbrueckii No. 1, requires vitamin B12 as an essential factor both for growth and division. It has been determined that B12 concentration sufficient for growth (cell elongation) is 3×10-4μg/ml, while a concentration as high as 1μg/ml is required for cellular division. This descrepancy is considered to be the cause of abnormal cell elongation of L. delbrueckii. The elongated cells are also abnormal at Gram reaction and chromatin structure. These abnormalities have been concluded as the secondary sequences following to the disturbance of functions of cell surface (cytoplasmic membrane) caused by vitamin B12 deficiency.
1. A nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Tolypothrix tenuis, was grown in mass in order to use it as the inoculum for the field test of its effectiveness in increasing the crop yield of rice plant. 2. Culture was effected in three consecutive steps as follows: (i) preliminary shaking culture using ordinary culture flasks, (ii) stirring culture in a large aseptic tank, and (iii) outdoor culture of closed circulation system using a large flat bag made of polyvinyl sheeting. The method adopted in each culture step was descriced in detail. 3. The maximum growth rate obtained was 0.2g/lit./day in the tank culture and 7.9g/m2/day in the outdoor culture, respectively.