A taxonomic study has been carried out on the pediococci collected from various mashes, wort, yeasts and beer, including authentic strains. From a comparison of growth ranges toward pH and temperature, degree of oxygen-requirement, halophility, fermentable sugars, salt- and hop-tolerancy, the genus Pediococcus is classified into five species, namely Pediococcuscerevisiae, P. acidilactici, P. pentosaceus, P. halophilus and P. urinae-equi. The species "P. urinae-equi" including strains isolated from the horse-urine which has been sometimes considered as an origin of "beer-sarcina" is found to be difinitely different from the beer-pediococci which are anaerophilic with an absolute requirement of CO2 for growth, incapableof growing in alkaline media or at a temperature of 35°, and have a high tolerancy for hop-antiseptic. Although BALCKE did not give a complete taxonomic description on his species "P. cerevisiae", of which name was originally adopted by him for beer-sarcina, we have regarded that the beer-pediococci belong to P. cerevisiae (cerevisiae means beer in Latin). Contrary to the opinion of PEDERSON et al. (14, 15), the strains distributed in fermenting vegetables are found to have many properties different from the beer-pediococci, i.e., maximum growth pH and temperature, hoptolerancy and CO2-requirement etc. Thus we think it is better to include them into the species P. pentosaceus MEES rather than P. cerevisiae. Other beer-sarcina strains labeled as P. damnosus, the name which has been adopted mainly by brewery researchers, may be included in the species of P. cerevisiae except P. damnosus strain No. 904 & 908 which have the same properties of P. pentosaceus. Although we do not know about the history or the origin of the strains, 904 & 908, the question arises as to an occurrence of the mutation from P. cerevisiae to P. pentosaceus. Experiments to examine such a possibility have not yet been succeeded at present. In any way, the habitat of the beer-pediococci incapable of growing in alkaline media is entirely unknown except beer and brewer's yeasts. The acid sensitive strains of Pediococcus soyae which have been recently isolated from soy-mashes in Japan are characterized by their strong salt-tolerancy and halophility. However, since they show nearly the same taxonomic properties with the strain "P. halophilus MEES (1934)" isolated from anchovy pickles, the authors have regarded them as a variety of the species "P. halophilus." We wish to warn that strains nowadays labeled as Streptococcus citrovorus or Leuconostoc citrovorum must not be classified into such genera, but should be considered as a variety of P. pentosaceus, and also the strain "Leuconostoc mesenteroides P-60 ATCC 8042" should be included in the species of P. acidilactici. Differing from the description appearing in BERGEY's Manual, the acid sensitive pediococci produce dextro-rotatory lactic acid in stead of the racemic form. This may be comprehended as an extreme case of restricted racemiase formation.
On the strain which was used in the previous report (2, 3) and described as Syncephalastrum sp., taxonomical studies were made and it was decided as Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn) Schroeter. This fungus formed 7α, 15β-dihydroxyprogesterone from progesterone in a short period of incubation, while 7α, 14α, 15β-trihydroxyprogesterone in a ong period. By this strain, 6β, 11α-dihydroxyprogesterone and 11- epihydrocortisone were also formed from 11α-hydroxyprogesterone and compound S, respectively. However, no oxidation products could be found from 6β, 11α-dihydroxyprogesterone and hydrocortisone.
1. A screening test for L-valine producing bacteria was carried out, and it was recognized that in shake culture a rather large amount of L-valine is practically produced as the sole amino acid in the broth from carbohydrates and nitrogen sources by some species of bacteria. 2. Two strains of newly isolated L-valine accumulating bacteria were studied according to the system described in BERGEY'S manual, and named Aerobacter cloacae var sp. NISR-B-151 and Aerobacter aerogenes NISR-B-801, respectively. 3. L-Valine was isolated from the culture broth in the crystalline form and identified. 4. The high level of L-valine production is attributed to the newly isolated Aerobacter bacteria, yielding as much as 0.2mole from one mole of glucose.
1. Methods for preserving algal cells for a long period without significant loss of growth capacity were examined. 2. Blue-green algae, Tolypothrix tenuis and Calothrix brevissima, could be preserved for 2 years in the lyophilized state with only a loss of about fifty percent in activity, if the Fifth Fraction of human serum albumin was provided as a protective substance. 3. As a practical method for preserving a large quantity of algae, a method of adsorption on a special fine porous gravel (Kanuma-tsuchi) was devised. The algae cultured on its moist surface were found to retain the capacity for growth being almost unimpaired for at least 2 years.
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