Bt L-7601 is a UV resistant wild-type strain, which belongs to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. dendrolimus serotype H4a4b. It was isolated from nature, and produced a dark brown pigment during the exponential phase of growth. Bt L-7601 had the ability to produce pigment in a general nutrition-abundant medium, which had no L-tyrosine. The pigment was identified as melanin based on chemical testing, its light absorbance, and FT-IR analysis. Bt L-7601 has a strong resistance to UV light. After 30 min irradiation its survival rate was 17 times higher than that of the strain B. thuringiensis subsp. colmeri 15A3, which had no pigment. Results of the bioassays of residual insecticidal activity of Bt formulation with and without pigment produced by Bt L-7601 against larvae of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua after exposure to UV irradiation showed that the pigment is an excellent UV protective agent for the insecticidal proteins.
Thirty Gluconobacter strains maintained at Culture Collection NBRC were re-identified at the species level on the basis of restriction analysis of 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions by digestion with two restriction endonucleases MboII and Bsp1286I. The strains examined were divided into seven groups, designated as Group I and Group III–VIII, by the combination of the restriction patterns obtained with the two restriction endonucleases. Group I included seven strains, which gave “G. oxydans patterns” with the two restriction endonucleases and were re-identified as G. oxydans. Group III included 12 strains, which gave “G. frateurii patterns” and were re-identified as G. frateurii. Group IV included six strains, which gave “G. cerinus pattern” with MboII and “G. frateurii pattern” with Bsp1286I and were re-identified as G. frateurii. Group V included one strain (NBRC 3274), which gave respectively “G. frateurii pattern” and “G. cerinus pattern” and was re-identified as G. cerinus. Group VI included one strain (NBRC 3990), which gave respectively “G. oxydans pattern” and an unidentified restriction pattern and was re-identified temporarily as G. oxydans. Group VII included two strains (NBRC 3250 and NBRC 3273), which gave respectively an unidentified restriction pattern and “G. oxydans pattern.” Group VIII included one strain (NBRC 3266), which gave unidentified restriction patterns. The three strains of Group VII and Group VIII were suggested to constitute new taxa by sequencing of 16S–23S rDNA ITS regions.
The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial community structure of the biofouling film formed on hollow-fiber membrane surfaces in the submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) with a nitrification-denitrification process. In this experiment, aeration was conducted intermittently (60 min off, 90 min on) cyclic anoxic and oxic conditions in the SMBR. The dominant quinone types of biofilm on the membrane surface in an intermittently aerated SMBR were ubiquinone (UQs)-8, -10, followed by menaquinones (MKs)-8(H4), -8(H2) and -7, but those of suspended microorganisms were UQ-8, UQ-10 followed by MKs-8, -9(H4) and -6. The change in quinone profiles of biofilm on the membrane surface suggested that UQ-9, MK-7, MK-8(H2) and MK-8(H4) contributed to microbiological fouling in the intermittently aerated SMBR treating domestic wastewater. The microbial diversities of suspended microorganisms and biofilm, calculated based on the composition of all quinones, were 9.5 and 10.9, respectively.
Rumen ciliate-associated bacteria and methanogenic archaea were analyzed by a 16S rRNA gene retrieved from a single cell of Polyplastron multivesiculatum, Isotricha intestinalis, and Ophryoscolex purkynjei. Rumen fluid was taken from a ruminally fistulated goat to prepare a ciliate fraction. Ciliate mixtures were incubated under mixtures of antibiotics for 48 h to eliminate extracellular bacteria. Individual cells of rumen ciliates were selected under microscopic observation after fixation with ethanol. Bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from each cell of three genera of ciliate. Two archaeal sequences related to Methanobrevibacter smithii were distributed to nearly all ciliate cells tested. These two methanogenic archaea were likely to be endosymbiotic methanogens commonly carried by the rumen ciliate, although some other sequences similar to the other genera were detected. A range of proteobacteria was retrieved from cells of P. multivesiculatum. Some sequences showed similarities to the previously known endosymbiotic proteobacteria. However, there were no proteobacteria that were carried by all the ciliate cells tested.
To determine the antibiotic resistance pattern and resistance plasmids, we studied 23 antibiotic-resistant clinical isolates of Enterococcus spp. which caused infection in Bayindir-Ankara Hospital, Turkey. Biochemical and physiological identification tests were applied by the Vitek system and compared with the results of protein profiles by SDS-PAGE. From 23 isolates, 20 were identified as E. faecalis, 2 as E. faecium and 1 as E. gallinarum. Twenty four antibiotics belong to 10 different groups were used in susceptibility tests. Multiple antibiotic resistance was determined in 10 of 23 Enterococcus spp. Overall resistance to the used antibiotics was 47.3% and low level resistance was 16.6%. Among the isolates tested, 8.7% demonstrated high level gentamicin resistance, 17.4% demonstrated high level streptomycin resistance, and 43.5% demonstrated penicillin resistance. High level vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. rate was 34.8%, and 60.9% exhibited low level resistance to vancomycin and teicoplanin. They contain plasmids which varied in numbers between 1 and 11 and the plasmid sizes ranged from 2.08 to 56.15 kb. In curing experiments with acriflavine, two different plasmids were shown in different molecular sizes of 33.49 and 13.6 kb while the first determined glycopeptide and penicillin resistance, the second one determined either glycopeptide or penicillin resistance in two different E. faecalis strains. On the other hand, a 22.58 kb plasmid, determining kanamycin resistance, was detected in an E. faecium strain. After the curing experiments, an elimination of 37.17 and 44.47 kDa protein bands was shown in E. faecium EFA1 and E. faecalis EFA13 in SDS-PAGE, respectively. This survey indicates the increase of antibiotic-resistant enterococci, especially to vancomycin in our hospital isolates.
In order to obtain basic information on the biosorption and recycling of gold from aqueous systems using microbial cells, the biosorption of gold by various microorganisms was investigated. Of 75 strains of microorganisms tested (25 bacteria, 19 actinomycetes, 17 fungi and 14 yeasts), high abilities of gold biosorption from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) were found in some gram-negative bacterial strains, such as Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and P. maltophilia. Most of the gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi and yeasts had a lower ability for gold biosorption than gram-negative bacteria. On the other hand, all of the microorganisms tested adsorbed far smaller amounts of gold from a solution containing gold dicyanoaurate (I). The biosorption of gold from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (III) using P. maltophilia having a high adsorbing ability for gold was very rapid and was affected by the pH of the solution, external gold concentration, and cell amounts. P. maltophilia cells immobilized with polyacrylamide gel also have a high ability for gold biosorption. The gold adsorbed on the immobilized cells is easily desorbed with 0.1 M thiourea solution. The immobilized P. maltophilia cells can be used repeatedly in biosorption-desorption cycles.