Strain IAM 14839, isolated from activated sludge in Japan, forms a visible floc and grows in the flocculated state. This bacterium is Gram-negative, rod-shaped, strictly aerobic and highly motile with a single polar flagellum. Both oxidase and catalase activities are positive. No growth was observed on sugars. The strain can grow at 20°C, but does not grow at 37°C. The G+C content of DNA is 66.3 mol% and Q-8 is the major quinone. The major cellular fatty acids are 16:1ω7c, 16:0, 18:1ω7c, 2OH 16:0, 3OH 10:0. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the bacterium clustered within the genus Comamonas. On the basis of the phylogenetic analysis and phenotypic properties, it is proposed that the strain IAM 14839T be classified in a novel species of the genus Comamonas, Comamonas badia sp. nov. The type strain is IAM 14839T (=KCTC 12244T).
A taxonomic study was carried out on Chj404T †, a bacterial strain isolated from a soil sample collected in an industrial stream near the Chung-Ju industrial complex in Korea. The strain was a gram-negative, aerobic, short rod to coccus-shaped bacterium. It grew well on nutrient agar medium and utilized a broad spectrum of carbon sources. The G+C content of the DNA was 67.4 mol% and the major composition of ubiquinone was Q-10. The major fatty acid was C18:1. Comparative 16S rDNA studies showed a clear affiliation of this bacterium to α-Proteobacteria. Comparison of phylogenetic data indicated that it was most closely related to Prosthecomicrobium pneumaticum (92.7% similarity in 16S rDNA sequence). Since strain Chj404 is clearly distinct from closely related species, we propose the name Kaistia adipata gen. nov., sp. nov. for this strain Chj404T (=IAM 15023T=KCTC 12095T).
Cellular polyamines of the newly additional 19 species belonging to the class Bacteroides of the phylum Bacteroidetes were analyzed by HPLC to display polyamine distribution as a chemotaxonomic marker within the total 41 species. Three profiles, the presence of spermidine, the presence of homospermidine and the absence of both triamines, corresponded to their phylogenetical positions within the four families of the class. The occurrence of an aromatic amine, 2-phenylethylamine, extracted into cellular polyamine fraction, was also determined within the 121 species distributed within the phylum. This aromatic amine was found in Cellulophaga lytica, Cytophaga latercula, Tenacibaculum amylolyticum, Tenacibaculum martimum, Tenacibaculum mesophilum and Psychroflexus torquis belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae of the class Flavobacteria, and Flexibacter flexilis and Microscilla marina belonging to the family Flexibacteraceae of the class Sphingobacteria.
Six strains of anamorphic yeasts isolated from insect frass collected in several regions of Thailand were assigned to the genus Candida based on the conventional taxonomic criteria used for yeast classification. These strains have Q-7 as the major ubiquinone and are suggested to have close relationships to the genus Pichia. Three strains, ST-225, ST-228 and ST-229, have identical nucleotide sequences in the D1/D2 domain of 26S rDNA and are closely related to Pichia japonica, but differ by six nucleotides (1.1%) from this species. These three strains are considered to represent a single new species, which is described as Candida easanensis sp. nov. Two strains, ST-311 and ST-320, have identical sequences in the D1/D2 domain and resemble Pichia veronae and Pichia fabianii but differ from them by nine nucleotides (1.6%) in D1/D2 sequences. The two strains are described as Candida pattaniensis sp. nov. The remaining strain, ST-37, is related to Pichia americana and Pichia bimundalis but differs by six (1.1%) and seven (1.2%) nucleotides from these species, respectively. This strain is described as Candida nakhonratchasimensis sp. nov.
Cellular polyamines of 45 thermophilic and 8 related mesophilic eubacteria were investigated by HPLC and GC analyses for the thermophilic and chemotaxonomic significance of polyamine distribution profiles. Spermidine and a quaternary branched penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl)norspermidine, were the major polyamine in Thermocrinis, Hydrogenobacter, Hydrogenobaculum, Aquifex, Persephonella, Sulfurihydrogenibium, Hydrogenothermus, Balnearium and Thermovibrio, located in the order Aquificales. Thermodesulfobacterium and Thermodesulfatator belonging to the order Thermodesulfobacteriales contained another quaternary penta-amine, N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine. In the order Thermotogales, Thermotoga contained spermidine, norspermidine, caldopentamine and homocaldopentamine. The latter two linear penta-amines were not found in Marinitoga and Petrotoga. In the order Thermales, Thermus and Marinithermus contained homospermidine, norspermine and the linear penta-amines. Meiothermus lacked penta-amines. Vulcanithermus contained linear penta-amines and hexa-amines but not homospermidine. Oceanithermus contained spermine alone. Within the order Thermoanaerobacteriales, the two quaternary branched penta-amines were found in Thermanaeromonas and Thermoanaerobacter. Caldanaerobacter contained N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine. Thermoanaerobacterium lacked penta-amines. Thermaerobacter of the order Clostridiales contained N4-bis(aminopropyl)spermidine and agmatine. Thermosyntropha, Thermanaerovibrio, Thermobrachium (the order Clostridiales), Sulfobacillus, Alicyclobacillus, Anoxybacillus, Ureibacillus, Thermicanus (the order Bacillales), Desulfotomaculum, Desulfitobacterium and Pelotomaculum (the family Peptococcaceae)ubiquitously contained spermine. Some thermophiles of Bacillales added linear and branched penta-amines.