Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) from termites have been assigned to the genus Desulfovibrio. Desulfovibrio intestinalis lives in the gut of the Australian termite Mastotermes darwiniensis. For the first time we were able to enrich and identify a sulfate-reducing bacterium from the gut of the rose-chafer Pachnoda marginata, which showed the highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (93%) to Desulfovibrio intestinalis and Desulfovibrio strain STL1. Compared to Mastotermes darwiniensis (1×107 cells of SRB per ml gut contents), sulfate-reducing bacteria occurred in higher numbers in the gut contents of Pachnoda marginata reaching cell titers of up to 2×108 cells per ml gut contents. In vitro sulfate reduction rates were determined with SRB from the gut contents of the termite Mastotermes darwiniensis and the beetle Pachnoda marginata. Due to the higher cell titer, the sulfate reduction rate of Pachnoda marginata was 104 nmol×h−1×ml−1 and therefore, 21 times higher than that of Mastotermes darwiniensis. In addition, we detected in vivo sulfate reduction in Mastotermes darwiniensis, which indicates that sulfate reducers play an active role in the sulfur metabolism in the termite gut.
Two Pseudomonas-like yellow-orange-pigmented non-fluorescent denitrifying strains KMM 235 and KMM 1447T were isolated from marine ascidian specimens and investigated by a polyphasic approach to clarify their taxonomic status. On the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence data the new isolates clustered with the Pseudomonas stutzeri species group with sequence similarities of >98%. The results of DNA-DNA hybridization and biochemical characterization showed genetic and phenotypic distinction between strains KMM 235 and KMM 1447T and from the other validly described Pseudomonas species. Strain KMM 235 was found to be closely related to the type strain of Pseudomonas stutzeri in their phenotypic and genetic characteristics and represented, probably, a new P. stutzeri genomovar. It is proposed that strain KMM 1447T be classified as a new species of the genus Pseudomonas, Pseudomonas xanthomarina sp. nov., with the type strain KMM 1447T (=JCM 12468T=NRIC 0617T=CCUG 46543T).
Overexpression of the rntA cDNA encoding RNase T1 derived from A. oryzae causes severe growth inhibition in S. cerevisiae. We previously reported that most S. cerevisiae mutant strains defective in translocation into the ER, ER-Golgi transport and vacuole formation exhibited hypersensitivity to expression of RNase T1. Screening for S. cerevisiae mutants that showed RNase T1 hypersensitivity resulted in the isolation of 38 (rns) mutant strains. Some of these mutants showed a variety of phenotypes including temperature-sensitive growth, hypersensitivity to G418, defect in invertase glycosylation and fragmented vacuoles. We identified the genes mutated in three of the rns mutants, rns1, rns2, and rns3, as DSL1, UMP1, and SEC17, respectively. Fluorescence microscopic observation showed that GFP or myc-tagged Rns1p was localized at the nuclear region in the cell. Two-hybrid screening revealed the interaction of Rns1p with a transcription factor Cin5p and a functionally unknown Ylr440cp. It was observed that HA-tagged Ylr440cp was localized to the ER and nuclear envelope.
Probiotics are defined as viable microorganisms that exhibit a beneficial effect on the host's health when they are ingested. Two important criteria are used for selection of probiotic microorganisms: they must be able to survive in the gastrointestinal environment and to present at least one beneficial function (colonization resistance, immunomodulation or nutritional contribution). Generally, in vitro assays demonstrating these properties were used to select probiotics but it is unclear if the data can be extrapolated to in vivo conditions. In the present work, twelve Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from different environments (insect association, tropical fruit, cheese and “aguardente” production) and pre-selected for in vitro resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions were inoculated in germ-free mice to evaluate their real capacity to colonize the mammal digestive tract. Using these data, one of the yeasts (S. cerevisiae 905) was selected and tested in gnotobiotic (GN) and conventional (CV) mice for its capacity to protect against oral challenge with two enteropathogenic bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile). The yeast reached populational levels potentially functional in the gastrointestinal portions where the enteropathogens tested act. No antagonism against either pathogenic bacterium by the yeast was observed in the digestive tract of GN mice but, after challenge with S. Typhimurium, mortality was lower and liver tissue was better preserved in CV animals treated with the yeast when compared with a control group (p<0.05). Histopathological results of intestines showed that the yeast also presented a good protective effect against oral challenge with C. difficile in GN mice (p<0.05). In conclusion, among the 12 S. cerevisiae tested, strain 905 showed the best characteristics to be used as a probiotic as demonstrated by survival capacity in the gastrointestinal tract and protective effect of animals during experimental infections.
The expression of seventy-seven randomly cloned genes of Escherichia coli was examined following a variety of treatments including heat shock, glucose starvation, phosphate starvation, ammonium starvation or osmotic shock, with the aid of lacZ reporter gene protein fusions on multicopy plasmids. Two of 77 genes (amr and yigL) had not previously been identified as protein encoding open-reading frames (ORFs) in annotations of the E. coli genome database. Thirteen genes exhibited significant changes in expression in response to at least one of the treatments, and six of them appeared to be controlled by more than one σ (sigma) factor of RNA polymerase. This study thus allows us not only to identify the reading frame of the genomic genes but also to support the hypothesis earlier proposed that a significant proportion of genes in E. coli are involved in adaptations to various stresses to which the organism is likely to be exposed in the environment.
A new strain of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens (TH1) that has high potential to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was isolated. Strain TH1 had higher LA isomerase (LA-I) activity, and was much more tolerant to linoleic acid (LA) than other strains examined. However, high CLA reductase (CLA-R) activity resulted in the temporary accumulation of CLA and subsequent conversion to trans-vaccenic acid (t-VA). When LA was added to growing TH1 cultures in a solution with dimethylsulfoxide (LA/DMSO), CLA produced was greater than when LA was added in a mixture with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The number of viable cells decreased upon addition of LA/DMSO, but then increased as the CLA decreased upon its conversion to t-VA. This result suggests that B. fibrisolvens can resume growing by the removal of CLA from the cells. Most CLA was released from B. fibrisolvens cells by gentle washing with BSA, suggesting that CLA bound to the cells might be removed in the rumen and large intestine. Thus, CLA production by B. fibrisolvens in the digestive tract could be increased by a reduction in CLA-R activity without accompanying an overall decrease in the cell number of B. fibrisolvens. Fatty acids (FAs) with 18 carbon backbone inducted LA-I activity, whereas unsaturated FAs induced CLA-R activity, suggesting that FAs stimulate the synthesis of LA-I and CLA-R. Providing a diet with a low ratio of unsaturated to saturated FAs may favor CLA production.
The Present paper deals with the insecticide endosulfan (5, 10 and 20 μg/ml)-induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters related to photosynthesis and defense systems in paddy field cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum grown under laboratory conditions. Growth and photosynthetic pigments, i.e., chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycocyanin, were adversely affected by endosulfan treatment and the inhibition was found to be dose dependent. The toxic effect of endosulfan was more pronounced on phycocyanin; however, a considerable reduction in chlorophyll a and carotenoids was also noticed. 14C-fixation appeared to be more sensitive to insecticide than whole cell oxygen evolution. Spheroplasts treated with endosulfan exhibited a severe effect on PSII activity which was mainly due to blocking of the electron flow at the water oxidation side. In contrast to this, similar doses of endosulfan caused the least effect on PSI activity (DCPIP/ASC→MV). Furthermore, endosulfan with increasing doses accelerated the formation of active oxygen species, i.e., O2− and H2O2, in cells progressively, whereby an enhanced peroxidation of lipid and leakage of cell membrane were noticed. As a consequence of active oxygen species (AOS) generation in endosulfan-treated cells, the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) was enhanced considerably. Besides the accelerated action of enzymatic defense systems, chemical antioxidant ascorbate showed a decreasing trend with the rising concentration of endosulfan (5, 10 and 20 μg/ml).
The nucleocapsids of hepatitis B virus (HBV) are made of 180 or 240 subunits of core proteins or known as core antigens (HBcAg). A fusion bacteriophage bearing the WSFFSNI sequence that interacts tightly to HBcAg was employed as a diagnostic reagent for the detection of the antigen using the phage-enzyme-linked immunosorbent (phage-ELISA), dot blot and immunoprecipitation assays. The results from phage-ELISA and dot blot assay showed that as low as 10 ng of HBcAg can be detected optimally by 1.0×1012 pfu/ml fusion M13 bacteriophage. The sensitivity of the dot blot assay corresponds with that of the phage-ELISA. HBcAg in HBV positive serum samples can also be detected using the fusion phage via the phage-ELISA and phage-dot blot assay. The phage cross-linked to cyanogen bromide (CNBr) activated agarose can also be used to precipitate HBcAg in bacterial lysate. The optimum amount of phage needed for cross-linking to 1 g of agarose is about 7.0×106 pfu/ml which could also precipitate purified and unpurified HBcAg in bacterial lysate. This study demonstrates the potential of fusion bacteriophage bearing the sequence WSFFSNI as a diagnostic reagent and a ligand for the detection and purification of HBcAg respectively.
Twenty Schiff bases of 2-amino-5-aryl-1,3,4-oxadiazoles have been synthesized with different aromatic aldehydes. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by nitrogen analysis, IR and 13C-NMR spectral data. The antibacterial** properties of the compounds were investigated against Proteus mirabilis (MTCC-425), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-424), Bacillus subtilis (MTCC-619) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96) using the broth dilution method. The most active compounds were 4c (64 μg/ml), 4f (68 μg/ml), 4m (64 μg/ml) and 4q (62 μg/ml). The antifungal** screening of the compounds were carried out using Aspergillus niger (MTCC-1344) and Candida albicans (MTCC-227) using the broth dilution method. Active compounds were 4g (52 μg/ml), 4h (56 μg/ml), 4l (60 μg/ml), 4m (58 μg/ml).