The tannase-producing efficiency of liquid-surface fermentation (LSF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) vis-à-vis submerged fermentation (SmF) was investigated in a strain of Aspergillus niger, besides finding out if there was a change in the activity pattern of tannase in these fermentation processes. The studies on the physicochemical properties were confined to intracellular tannase as only this form of enzyme was produced by A. niger in all three fermentation processes. In LSF and SmF, the maximum production of tannase was observed by 120 h, whereas in SSF its activity peaked at 96 h of growth. SSF had the maximum efficiency of enzyme production. Tannase produced by the SmF, LSF and SSF processes had similar properties except that the one produced during SSF had a broader pH stability of 4.5–6.5 and thermostability of 20°–60°C.
The nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the cellulose-binding protein B (CBPB) of Eubacterium cellulosolvens 5 was determined. The gene consists of an open reading frame of 3,429 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequence of CBPB contained one module highly similar to a catalytic module of glycosyl hydrolase family 9 (GHF9), one module partially similar to a family 3 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM3), two linkers, one module similar to a CBM of cellulose-binding protein A (CBPA) from E. cellulosolvens 5, and one module almost identical to a cell wall-binding module (CWBM) of CBPA. The module similar to GHF9 showed CMCase activity, and the modules similar to CBM3 and CBM of CBPA bound to cellulose. Moreover, the module highly similar to CWBM of CBPA bound to the cell walls prepared from E. cellulosolvens 5. The amino acid sequence of CBPB had a significant homology (64.15% sequence identity) with that of CBPA. These results suggest that cbpA and cbpB genes descended from the same ancestral cellulase gene.
A good probiotic strain should be able to survive the conditions of handling and storage to be delivered in high concentration to the host. That is especially important when stressful conditions are prevalent in the carrier, for instance in low water content foods like animal feed. The aim of this research was to study the survival of the probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum 44a after spraying and drying in feed, and during storage and exposure to gastrointestinal tract fluids in vitro. In addition, the viability of the strain during exposure to distilled water and 2% NaCl was studied. Feed was sprayed with a suspension of ≈2×1010 CFU of L. plantarum 44a in 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% v/w of the feed and dried to constant weight (6% moisture) in a convective oven at 25°C. L. plantarum 44a survived 14.67, 36, 51.86, 78.9 and 105.3% respectively in relation to the original % v/w of the feed. After 3 weeks of storage at 25°C, survival was similarly low in all the treatments. L. plantarum 44a stored in feed containing 13% moisture, vacuum-packaged and stored in refrigeration, maintained high viability (≈100%) after 1 year of storage. Survival was not affected after feed-containing lactobacilli was exposed to gastrointestinal fluids in a simulation model. Viability of L. plantarum 44a as a cell suspension in PBS added directly to distilled water or distilled water with 2% NaCl was maintained up to 48 h; after 72 h, viability started to decline. It is concluded that L. plantarum 44a maintained high viability after being dried and stored in feed even after exposure to gastric and intestinal fluids in vitro.
Morphological and chemotaxonomic characterization of actinomycete strain TT2-4T isolated from peat swamp forest soil in Pattaloong Province, Thailand, clearly demonstrated that this strain belongs to the genus Micromonospora. 16S rDNA sequence analysis for the strain supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Micromonospora and the similarity value of sequences between this strain and the closely related species, Micromonospora mirobrigensis was 99.1%, and M. carbonacea and M. matsumotoense were 98.8%. The DNA-DNA hybridization result and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain TT2-4T was distinguished from the phylogenetically closest relatives. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic data, strain TT2-4T merits a new species in the genus Micromonospora and the name Micromonospora siamensis sp. nov. is proposed for the strain. The type strain is strain TT2-4T (=JCM 12769T =PCU 266T =TISTR 1554T).
Two cation-tolerant yeasts with powdered colonies, K28-3-2T and K26-1-4, were isolated from dry salted shrimp and sewage, respectively, in Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The D1/D2 sequences of the 26S rDNA data showed that the two isolates were conspecific and related to the Pichia burtonii and Candida fennica. Two isolates were examined by a polyphasic taxonomic approach, including molecular phylogenetic analysis, morphological, physiological and biochemical tests, DNA hybridization and MSP-PCR fingerprinting, in comparison with P. burtonii and C. fennica. The two isolates were found to grow by multilateral budding with true and pseudo-mycelium, to not produce ascospores, and to contain ubiquinone Q-8 similar to that of P. burtonii and C. fennica. The two isolates were not differentiated from the two closest species, P. burtonii and C. fennica, by the phenotypic character examined, except for the cation (Li+)-tolerance. From DNA-DNA reassociation studies, however, the two isolates showed low similarities to the closest two species. Based on D1/D2 sequences of 26S rDNA and DNA-DNA reassociation data, they were shown to be a new distinct species from P. burtonii and C. fennica. Therefore, a novel species is proposed, Candida khmerensis sp. nov., represented by strain K28-3-2T (=JCM 13262T=CBS 9784T). The novel species, Candida khmerensis sp. nov. can be clearly distinguished from P. burtonii and C. fennica by either the 26S rDNA D1/D2 or ITS region with 5.8S rDNA sequencing, or by the MSP-PCR fingerprinting pattern.
Viral protein R (Vpr), one of the accessory gene products of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), is responsible for the incorporation of a viral genome into the nucleus upon infection. Vpr also arrests the cell cycle and induces apoptosis in infected cells. Similarly, in yeast, Vpr localizes in the nucleus and shows growth inhibitory activity; however, the molecular mechanism of growth inhibition remains unknown. To elucidate this mechanism, several point mutations of Vpr, which are known to perturb several phenotypes of Vpr in mammalian cells, were introduced in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. For the first time, we found that growth inhibition by Vpr occurred independently of intracellular localization in yeast, as has previously been reported in mammals. We also identified several amino acid residues, the mutation of which cancels growth inhibitory activity, and/or alters localization, both in yeast and mammalian cells, suggesting the importance of these residues for the phenotypes.