The antimycobacterial activity (both in vitro and in vivo) and DNA gyrase inhibition of newly synthesized fluoroquinolone derivatives were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and Mycobacterium smegmatis, respectively. Among the synthesized compounds, compound F11 was found to exhibit the most potent in vitro antimycobacterial activity with a MIC value of 0.78 μg/ml, and a selectivity index of more than 80 while not being cytotoxic to the Vero cell line up to 62.5 μg/ml. When evaluated for in vivo antimycobacterial activity, compound F11 demonstrated a paramount decrease of bacterial load in lung and spleen tissues compared to the control and better than the standard drug ciprofloxacin.
A fungus producing magenta was isolated from cellulosic material by visual observation on Czapek's agar media and the product was conventionally analyzed. The fungal strain that produced magenta pigment was closely related to Phoma herbarum. The type of fibers added to Czapek's medium influenced which pigments were produced. Mycelia attached to the surface of nylon-6 and excreted magenta pigment into the fibers. The pigment structure was partially determined. This is the first report of the production of magenta pigment by a microorganism specifically in the presence of nylon-6 fibers, via an unknown mechanism. This phenomenon raises the question of why and how the fungus disperses the pigment inside the fiber and suggests that fabrics can be dyed using microorganisms.
This study compares the PHB synthase activity of Nostoc muscorum, a N2-fixing cyanobacterium under control (grown in usual BG-11 medium), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deprivation and chemoheterotrophic conditions. Specific activity of PHB synthase did not depict significant variations in the latter three types of cultures, except for the control one, where a significantly lower activity was recorded. PHB synthase activity was detected only in the soluble fractions of both the control as well as cells incubated under chemoheterotrophic conditions. A Km of 80.2μM DL-β-hydroxybutyryl-CoA and Vmax of 197.5 nmol thiobenzoate (TNB) mg protein−1min−1 were observed for the enzyme. PHB synthase remained insensitive to acetyl-CoA, ATP, NADP, NADPH supplementation under in vitro condition. Addition of acetyl phosphate was found to activate the enzyme and the level of activation was dependent on the concentration of acetyl phosphate supplementation. Inhibition of PHB synthase in 2,3-butanedione supplemented cultures and reactivation following acetyl phosphate addition proved the post-translational control of acetyl phosphate over PHB synthase.
Biosurfactant production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa A41, a strain isolated from seawater in the gulf of Thailand, was examined when grown in defined medium containing 2% vegetable oil or fatty acid as a carbon source in the presence of vitamins, trace elements and 0.4% NH4NO3, at pH 7 and 30°C with 200 rpm-shaking for 7 days. The yield of biosurfactant steadily increased even after a stationary phase. Under such conditions the surface tension of the medium was lowered from 55–70 mN/m to 27.8–30 mN/m with every carbon source tested. However, types of carbon sources were found to affect biosurfactant yield. The yields of rhamnolipid biosurfactant were 6.58 g/L, 2.91 g/L and 2.93 g/L determined as rhamnose content when olive oil, palm oil and coconut oil, respectively, were used as a carbon source. Among them, biosurfactant obtained from palm oil was the best in lowering surface tension of the medium. Increase in biosurfactant activities in terms of oil displacement test and rhamnose content were observed to be higher with shorter chain fatty acids than that of the longer chains (C12>C14>C16). In addition, we found that C18:2, highly unsaturated fatty acid, showed higher oil displacement activity and rhamnose content than that of C18:1. The optimal oil displacement activity was found at pH 7–9 and in the presence of 0.5–3% NaCl. The oil displacement activity was stable to temperatures up to 100°C for 15 h. Surface tension reduction activity was relatively stable at pH 2–12 and 0–5% of NaCl. Emusification activity tested with various types of hydrocarbons and vegetable oils showed similarity of up to 60% stability. The partially purified biosurfactant via TLC and silica gel column chromatography gave three main peaks on HPLC with mass spectra of 527, 272, and 661 m/z respectively, corresponding to sodium-monorhamnodecanoate, hydroxyhexadecanoic acid and an unknown compound, respectively.
A thermophilic, spore-forming bacterial strain L1T was isolated from hot compost “Pomigliano Environment” s.p.a., Pomigliano, Naples, Italy. The strain was identified by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. L1T resulted in an aerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped, thermophilic with an optimum growth temperature of 68°C chemorganotrophic bacterium which grew on hydrocarbons as unique carbon and energy sources and was resistant to heavy metals. The G+C DNA content was 43.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis of L1T and related strains showed that it forms within Geobacillus toebii, a separate cluster in the Geobacillus genus. The composition of cellular fatty acids analyses by Gas-Mass Spectroscopy differed from that typical for the genus Geobacillus in that it is lacking in iso-C15 fatty acid, while iso-C16 and iso-C17 were predominant. Isolates grew on a rich complex medium at temperatures between 55–75°C and presented a doubling time (td) of 2 h and 6 h using complex media and hydrocarbon media, respectively. Among hydrocarbons tested, n-decane (2%) was the more effective to support the growth (1 g/L of wet cells). The microorganism showed resistance to heavy metal tested during the growth. Furthermore, intracellular α-galactosidase and α-glucosidase enzymatic activities were detectable in the L1T strain. Based on phenotypic, phylogenetic, fatty acid analysis and results from DNA-DNA hybridization, we propose assigning a novel subspecies of Geobacillus toebii, to be named Geobacillus toebii subsp. decanicus subsp. nov., with the type strain L1T (=DSM 17041=ATCC BAA 1004).