Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium camembertii were cultivated in pure and mixed cultures on glucose and threonine. In pure cultures, G. candidum used glucose as a carbon and an energy source and threonine only as a nitrogen source, even after glucose exhaustion. Contrarily, when growing in isolation, P. camembertii used simultaneously threonine and glucose as carbon sources. A diauxic growth was recorded during the mixed culture of both species, which competed for glucose, the sole carbon source available for G. candidum growth, leading to higher glucose consumption rates than those recorded during pure cultures, while after glucose exhaustion, low growth was recorded in a second step, showing a ‘competition’ for threonine, the sole remaining carbon and nitrogen sources, confirmed by the increase of 1.0±0.1 log of the G. candidum Colony Forming Units. ‘Competition’ between G. candidum and P. camembertii for the limiting substrate was found to have a positive effect on growth, since it did not lead to the annihilation of one species, as usually observed, but in their coexistence, leading to a rather similar final number of the CFUs for the two populations. ‘Competition’ resulted in the absence of assimilation of the second available carbon substrate (lactate) as previously observed, or its use only as a nitrogen source, as was the case for threonine in this work.
The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of freeze-dried bacterial species stored at the International Patent Organism Depository (IPOD) and to elucidate the characteristics affecting survival. Bacterial strains were freeze-dried, sealed in ampoules under a vacuum (<1 Pa), and stored in the dark at 5°C. The survival of a variety of species following storage for up to 20 years was analyzed. The survival of freeze-dried species was analyzed in terms of two stages, freeze-drying and storing. Nonmotile genera showed relatively high survival after freeze-drying. Motile genera with peritrichous flagella showed low survival rates after freeze-drying. Vibrio and Aeromonas, which produce numerous flagella, showed very low survival rates. In Lactobacillus, non-trehalose-fermenting species showed better survival rates after freeze-drying than did fermenting species, and those species with teichoic acid in the cell wall showed lower survival rates during storage than species with teichoic acid in the cell membrane. Human pathogenic species of Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Streptococcus, and Klebsiella showed lower survival rates during storage than nonpathogenic species within the same genus. Among Pseudomonas species, P. chlororaphis, the only species tested that forms levan from sucrose, showed the lowest survival rate during storage in the genus. Survival rates of Gram-negative species during storage tended to be lower than those of Gram-positive species, though Chryseobacterium meningosepticum had stable survival during storage. The conclusion is that smooth cell surfaces (i.e., no flagella) and lack of trehalose outside the cytoplasm improved survival rates after freeze-drying. Because desiccation is important for survival during storage, the presence of extracellular polysaccharides or teichoic acids is disadvantageous for long-term survival. The lower survival rates of freeze-dried Gram-negative bacteria compared with those of Gram-positive bacteria may be attributed to the thinner peptidoglycan layer and the presence of lipopolysaccharides on the cell wall in the former species.
A captive female dugong at Toba Aquarium (Japan) was examined to describe the microbiota of its lower digestive tracts using the molecular-biological technique, a culture-independent method. The phylogenetic analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes was conducted for fecal samples, which were taken at 3 different periods. Based on phylogenetic analysis of these sequences, the representatives of six bacterial phyla could be identified: Actinobacteria (0.7%), Bacteroidetes (15%), Firmicutes (83.1%), Lentisphaerae (0.1%), Proteobacteria (0.1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1.0%), suggesting the existence of bacterial species newly found not only in the digestive tract but also in natural field.
Seven hundred thirty-nine animal strains and 662 livestock-farmer strains, consisting of Escherichia coli and enterococci, were examined for their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial-resistance patterns. Two hundred fifty-eight and 203 PFGE patterns were found among 739 animal strains isolated from animals comprising broilers, pigs and cattle, and 662 human strains isolated from livestock farmers, respectively, from 27 farms in Japan. These results demonstrated that the PFGE patterns found among E. coli and enterococci strains from animals and livestock-farmers were heterogeneous and considerably diverse. The strains having both the identical PFGE pattern and the same drug-resistance pattern were defined as a single clone in this study. Seven types of E. coli and enterococci clones were shared among animals within the same farms and between the different farms housing the same animal species. The 25 strains (3.4%) of 739 E. coli and enterococci animal strains belonged to these seven types of clones. Only three types of E. coli clones were shared among animals between the different farms housing different animal species, but no identical E. faecalis or E. faecium clones were found between different animal species farms. The 15 strains (2.0%) of 739 E. coli and enterococci animal strains belonged to these three types of clones. Additionally, the 11 strains (1.5%) of 739 E. coli and enterococci strains isolated from animals were identical clones to strains isolated from livestock farmers of the same farm. These results suggest that the transmission of animal clones to livestock farmers or vice versa is less common.
Fourteen strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) isolated from Qula, a Tibetan traditional yak cheese, were divided into four groups (A–D) according to morphological and biochemical characteristics. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, group A and group B strains were placed in the cluster making up the genus Leuconostoc, which together with Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, formed a distinct cluster. The group C strain was clearly identified as Enterococcus faecium by forming a very well defined cluster with this species. The group D strains were placed in the lactobacilli cluster with Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus pentosus being the closely related species. On the basis of DNA-DNA hybridization, strains in the groups A, B, C and D were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus plantarum, respectively. Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum was the dominate member of the population.
A bacterial strain, WLT, which was isolated from an activated sludge, was able to degrade alkylphenols. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that strain WLT belonged to the genus Pseudomonas (sensu stricto) and formed a monophyletic clade with the type strain of Pseudomonas graminis and other members in the Pseudomonas putida subcluster with sequence similarity values higher than 97%. Genomic relatedness based on DNA-DNA hybridization of strain WLT to these strains is 2–41%. Strain WLT contained ubiquinone-9 as the main respiratory quinone, and the G+C content of DNA was 66 mol%. The organism contained hexadecanoic acid (16:0), hexadecenoic acid (16:1) and octadecenoic acid (18:1) as major cellular fatty acids. The hydroxy fatty acids detected were 3-hydroxydecanoic acid (3-OH 10:0), 3-hydroxydodecanoic acid (3-OH 12:0) and 2-hydroxydodecanoic acid (2-OH 12:0). These results, as well as physiological and biochemical characteristics clearly indicate that the strain WLT represents a new Pseudomonas species, for which the name Pseudomonas japonica is proposed. The type strain is strain WLT (=IAM 15071T=TISTR 1526T).