Four strains of yeasts isolated in Japan, Thailand and Taiwan were found to represent three novel species of the genus Candida. The three species are located in a clade including Candida tsuchiyae, Candida thailandica and Candida akabanensis in a tree based on the D1/D2 domain sequences of the large subunit rRNA genes but clearly differentiated from these relative species. Three novel species are proposed for these strains, i. e., Candida berkhoutiae sp. nov., for strains ST-49T (=BCC 7749T=NBRC 106733T=CBS 11722T) isolated from insect frass in Thailand and SA13S01 (=NBRC 106053) isolated from soil in Taiwan, Candida ezoensis sp. nov., for strain Y07-1601-2T (=NBRC 105019T=CBS 11753T) isolated from forest soil in Japan, and Candida inulinophila sp. nov., for ST-369T (=BCC 15081T=NBRC 106735T=CBS 11725T) isolated from an unidentified wild mushroom from Thailand.
An α-glucosidase producing, thermophilic, facultatively anaerobic, and endospore-forming, motile, rod-shaped bacterial strain F84bT was isolated from a high temperature well-pipeline sediment sample in Kizilcahamam, Turkey. The growth occurred at temperatures, pH and salinities ranging from 45 to 69ºC (optimum 60ºC), 7.0 to 8.5 (optimum 8.0) and 0 to 5% (w/v) (optimum 3.5%), respectively. Strain F84bT was able to grow on a wide range of carbon sources. Starch and tyrosine utilization, amylase, catalase and oxidase activities, nitrate reduction, and gas production from nitrate were all positive. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 49.6 mol%. The menaquinone content was MK-7. The dominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C17:0, iso-C15:0, and C16:0. In phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain F84bT showed high sequence similarity to Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (99.8%) and to Geobacillus subterraneus (99.3%) with DNA hybridization values of 74.3% and 29.1%, respectively. In addition, the Rep-PCR and the intergenic 16S-23S rRNA gene fingerprinting profiles differentiated strain F84bT from the Geobacillus species studied. The results obtained from the physiological and biochemical characters, the menaquinone contents, the borderline DNA-DNA hybridization homology, and the genomic fingerprinting patterns had allowed phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic differentiation of strain F84bT from G. thermodenitrificans. Therefore, strain F84bT is assigned to be a new subspecies of G. thermodenitrificans, for which the name Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, subsp. nov. is proposed (The type strain F84bT= DSM 22629T = NCIMB 14582T).
Morphological and chemotaxonomic characterization of actinomycete strain S582 isolated from the gut of a termite (Speculitermes sp.) in Pathum Thani Province, Thailand, clearly demonstrated that this strain is a member of the genus Saccharopolyspora. 16S rDNA sequence analysis for the strain supported the assignment of the strain to the genus Saccharopolyspora. The similarity value of sequences between this strain and the closely related species Saccharopolyspora endophytica was 99.5%. The DNA G+C content was 70.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization results (53.3%) and some physiological and biochemical properties indicated that strain S582T was distinguished from the phylogenetically closest relatives. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic data, strain S582T should be a new species in the genus Saccharopolyspora and the name Saccharopolyspora pathumthaniensis sp. nov. is proposed for the strain. The type strain is S582T (=NBRC 104112T =BCC 28624T).
Fluorescent Pseudomonas from diverse environmental samples including wastes were identified and screened for the solubilization of tricalcium phosphate, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), production and inhibition of extracellular N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHLs) and characterized for their siderophores. Genotypic analysis by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and BOX-A1R-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (BOX-PCR) typing resulted respectively in 14 ARDRA types and 24 different BOX-types with diverse incidence among the analyzed strains. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis the isolates were assigned to P. aeruginosa, P. otitidis, P. plecoglossicida, P. mosselii, P. monteilii, P. koreensis, P. taiwanenesis, P. frederiksbergensis and P. graminis. Of the 66 isolates, 56 (84.85%) isolates solubilized tri-calcium phosphate (TCP), 53 (80.30%) isolates produced plant growth hormone IAA, 62 (94%) produced bacteriocin and 34 (52%) isolates produced extracellular N-acylhomoserine lactone while 30 (45%) isolates were able to interfere with N-acylhomoserine lactone. Isolates were clustered into 17 siderotypes and 59Fe cross-incorporation experiments permitted assignment of all siderotypes but two into well-defined siderovars.
IL-12 is known to be an essential cytokine which appears to provide protective immunity against intracellular bacteria, such as Salmonella. In this study, we investigated the possibility of developing a vaccine using IL-12 against virulent Salmonella. We used the host defense system activated by cytokine IL-12. The highly virulent Salmonella strain (Salmonella typhimurium UK-1) was transformed with cytokine-expressing plasmids. These live, wild-type pathogens were used as vaccine strains without undergoing any other biological or genetic attenuating processes. The newly developed strains induced partial protection from infections (30-40%). Of note, the interleukin-12-transformed pathogen was safe upon immunization with low doses (103 cfu), induced IgG responses, and stimulated protective immune responses against Salmonella typhimurium in mice (80-100%). These results suggest that IL-12 induced attenuation of wild-type Salmonella in the host infection stage and vaccine development using the wild-type strain harboring plasmid-secreting IL-12 may be considered as an alternative process for intracellular bacterial vaccine development without the inconvenience of time-consuming attenuation processes.