(1) A new bacteria was isolated from acetone-butanol fermentation broth which showed an unanticipated formation of isopropanol. It was identified that this microorganism is a variety of Lactobacillus brevis and was named "Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis nov. var." (2) Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis produces isopropanol as the result of the reduction of acetone by its addition to medium. (3) Cultured with Clostridium acetobutylicum, Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis reduces the acetone which is produced by the former organism, and furthermore, Clostridium converts the acids to solvents. (4) The oxidation-reduction between acetone and isopropanol was demonstrated by the intact cells of Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis. (5) The activity of acetone reduction by Lactobacillus brevis var hofuensis was compared with other microorganisms and the reducing potency was proved. (6) Specificities of Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis for alcohols, polyols and other similar compounds were investigated. (7) Alcohols, glycols, glycerol, and mannitol, especially secondary alcohols and polyols from C2 to C6 were readily oxidized. (8) Methanol, aromatic alcohols, hydroxy acids and substitutes of alcohols did not undergo reaction.
(1) The composition of medium for the enzymatical experiments of Lactobacillus brevis var. hofuensis was investigated and two media were determined as inoculum and accumulation media. (2) Acetone was reduced by intact cell, cell-free extract and residue of extract and it was found that glucose played a role for the reduction of acetone by these preparations. (3) Oxidation-reduction potentials of the dehydrogenation systems by alcohols and polyols were measured and the potential of isopropanol dehydrogenation was proved at -0.3 volt. (4) Oxygen-uptake by isopropanol and ethanol was examined under various conditions and it was demonstrated than isopropanol exceeded ethanol. (5) Cofactors about dehydrogenation of isopropanol and ethanol are DPN and TPN. DPN-specificity is less than 1/10 of TPN. (6) The incorporation between glycolysis and reduction of substrate was elucidated. Oxidation of glucose-6-phosphate or 6-phosphogluconate and reduction of acetone, acetaldehyde or other substances were coupled by way of oxidation-reduction of TPN. (7) Inhibitors experiments clarified the reductions of acetone and acetaldehyde as the different reactions. (8) Comparing the oxidation-reduction of isopropanol/acetone with ethanol /acetaldehyde it was suggested that the former reaction is oxidative. (9) This microorganism has the flavoprotein analogous to cytochrome c reductase and the specific terminal oxidase. (10) The flavoprotein exhibits the peaks of different spectrum at 380 mμ and 445mμ and links to the dehydrogenase of isopropanol and results in its oxidative activity. (11) The name of isopropanol dehydrogenase was designated to the enzyme concerning oxidation-reduction between isopropanol and acetone. (12) This enzyme relates to the dehydrogenation of secondary butanol and 1.2 propylene glycol.
An apparatus for the photosynthetic growth of Chlorella with C14-carbon dioxide as a sole source of carbon was described. The device has no circulating system and all connections are glass to glass. Thus, the leakage problem is minimized. Up to 15mc of carbon dioxide was utilized for each culture. High specific activity uniformly labeled compounds could be isolated from the cells.
1. Comparative tests on oxidative ability of bacteria against steroids were carried out and attempts were also made to select useful strains. 2. The strains tested were 162 strains of Pseudomonas and 24 strains of Micrococcus, either newly isolated or preserved as standard strains in this Laboratory. These strains were tested for their ability to oxidize progesterone and Reichstein's Compound S, and some useful strains were found in Ps. ovalis, Ps. inertia, Ps. Nitroreductans, and Ps. rathonis. 3. Taxonomical position of the Pseudomonas strains having the ability to oxidize steroids was examined earlier by one of the present author (IIZUKA). The three types of classification proposed by IIZUKA, the Fluorescent, Achromogenic, and Chromogenic types, was found to have relationship to the ability of oxidizing steroids.
Heterotrophic growth of a blue-green alga, Tolypothrix tenuis, was investigated with respect to the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. Maximal growth of the alga was obtained when casamino acids and glucose were used simultaneously as N-source and C- and/or energy source. Certain amino acids, such as arginine and phenylalnine, were also found to be utilizable as sole sources of nitrogen. It was revealed that during the course of heterotrophic growth in the dark, formation of chlorophyll a, carotenoids and phycocyanin took place; no increase in phycoerythrin content was ever detected. On the basis of the results obtained, suitable conditions for heterotropic culture of blue-green algae are recommended.
1) The activities of D- and L-lactic dehydrogenases were measured by the decolorization of 2, 4-dichlorophenol indophenol. The activities of these lactic dehydrogenases of intact cells of lactic acid bacteria differ much from those of these sonic lysate. For example, in Lactobacillus delbrückii (D(-)-lactic acid former) activity of L-enzyme is markedly increased by lysis, but D-enzyme shows scarecely any change. And contrary, in L(+)-acid former (L. thermophilus or L. bulgaricus) D-enzyme is activated. 2) By the addition of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or cetyl pyridinium chloride, known as surface active agents which have an effect on the permeability of intact bacterial cells, or by treatment with toluol, similar changes in the enzyme activity is obtained. And under the electron microscope the swelling of the cell surface in these treated cells is quite distinct. From these facts we suggest that the intact cells should have stereospecific permeability to lactic acid, and discussed the permeability of the cell in relation to the inoculation time as well as to the optical property of the lactic acid. 3) Investigating the mode of action of CTAB, it was supposed that CTAB bind tightly with the cells, changing the character of cell surface. 4) Unlike with the β-galactoside permease of E. coil reported by MONOD, the transport of lactic acid was not inhibited by azide, fluoride, monojodoacetic acid and 2, 4-dinitrophenol.
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