Salmonella enterica isolates representing commonly isolated serotypes in Tunisia were analyzed using genotyping and phenotyping methods. ERIC and ITS-PCR applied to 48 Salmonella spp. isolates revealed the presence of 12 and 10 different profiles, respectively. The distribution of profiles among serotypes demonstrated the presence of strains showing an identical fingerprinting pattern. All Salmonella strains used in this study were positive for the sdiA gene. Three Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Enteritidis and Amsterdam were negative for the invA gene. The spvC gene was detected in thirteen isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Gallinarum and Montevideo. Antibiotic resistance was frequent among the recovered Salmonella isolates belonging to serotypes Anatum, Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Zanzibar and Derby. The majority of these isolates exhibited resistance to at least two antibiotic families. Four multidrug-resistant isolates were recovered from food animals and poultry products. These isolates exhibited not only resistance to tetracycline, sulphonamides, and ampicillin, but also have shown resistance to fluoroquinolones. Common resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in two S. Anatum and S. Zanzibar strains isolated from raw meat and poultry was also obtained. Furthermore, wastewater and human isolates exhibited frequent resistance to nalidixic acid and tetracycline. Of all isolates, 33.5% were able to form biofilm.
The bacterial flagellar motor is mainly energized by either a proton (H+) or sodium ion (Na+) motive force and the motor torque is generated by interaction at the rotor-stator interface. MotA/MotB-type stators use H+ as the coupling ion, whereas MotP/MotS- and PomA/PomB-type stators use Na+. Bacillus subtilis employs both H+-coupled MotA/MotB and Na+-coupled MotP/MotS stators, which contribute to the torque required for flagellar rotation. In Escherichia coli, there is a universally conserved Asp-32 residue of MotB that is critical for motility and is a predicted H+-binding site. In B. subtilis, the conserved aspartic acid residue corresponds to Asp-24 of MotB (MotB-D24) and Asp-30 of MotS (MotS-D30). Here we report the isolation of two mutants, MotB-D24E and MotS-D30E, which showed a non-motile and poorly motile phenotype, respectively. Up-motile mutants were spontaneously isolated from each mutant. We identified a suppressor mutation at MotB-T181A and MotP-L172P, respectively. Mutants MotB-T181A and MotP-L172P showed about 50% motility and a poorly motile phenotype compared to each wild type strain. These suppressor sites were suggested to indirectly affect the structure of the ion influx pathway.
The high level of genetic diversity in the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract has the potential to provide numerous beneficial functions to the host. Thus it is now acknowledged that the complexity in animal functioning is linked to the interacting microbiome in the gut. Despite the importance of gut microbiome, there is a lack of information concerning the microbial communities in the pig gut during the weaning transition. This study describes the fecal microbial shifts of healthy piglets during the weaning transition using barcoded pyrosequencing of the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene. Fecal samples were obtained from 15 piglets during the pre-weaning period (fourth week after birth) and post-weaning (sixth week after birth) and were subjected to community genomic DNA extraction for pyrosequencing analysis. As the piglets underwent the weaning transition a trend toward increased bacterial diversity was observed, based on species abundance as measured by the Shannon-Weaver index. Firmicutes (54.0%) and Bacteroidetes (59.6%) were the most dominant phyla during pre-weaning and post-weaning, respectively. During the weaning transition a distinct shift from Bacteroides to Prevotella as the most abundant genus was observed. Additionally, we detected a number of abundant gut bacterial species that have not been reported previously. Clostridium rectum, C. clostridioforme, C. lactatifermentans and Butyricimonas virosa were uniquely detected prior to weaning while Roseburia cecicola and Blautia wexlerae were detected during the post-weaning period only.
The intracellular trehalose levels in Shirakami kodama yeast, a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, isolated in 1997 from leaf mold in the Shirakami Mountains and since used as a commercial baker’s yeast, are remarkably high, which presumably is related to its tolerance of freezing and drought conditions. We isolated a spore clone from Shirakami kodama yeast with about 1.7-fold higher intracellular trehalose levels than the parental strain and set out to elucidate how this spore clone can accumulate intracellular trehalose to such a high concentration. The gene for trehalose 6-phosphate synthase, TPS1, was duplicated in this spore clone. Both TPS1 genes contributed to the high level of intracellular trehalose as a 3.4-fold decrease resulted from the disruption of one of the two TPS1 genes. Both Msn2 and Msn4, which bind to stress responsive elements in the promoter region of TPS1, were required for production of high levels of trehalose. Furthermore, the neutral trehalase activity of this spore clone is about 3-fold less than that of the laboratory strain although the gene for neutral trehalase, NTH1, functioned normally. These findings indicate that two TPS1 genes and the low trehalase activity are associated with high trehalose accumulation in this spore clone. The wide range of stresses of which we found the spore clone to be tolerant makes this yeast very attractive for commercial application and for further research into the mechanisms underlying stress responses and trehalose metabolism.