We identified two new radical scavengers, 12T061A (1, C19H20O7) and 12T061C (2, C20H22O7), from a culture of the Streptomyces sp. Spectroscopic analysis indicated that these compounds are new julichrome family compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 showed radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 of 370 μM and 18 μM, respectively. Moreover, 1 showed tumor cell growth suppressive activity in HepG2 cells, (IC50: 3.6 μM); however, no suppressive activity was shown in 2 (IC50: > 100 μM).
The potential of an inorganic fertilizer as an alternative nutrient source for the cultivation of Scenedesmus sp. IMMTCC-6 was investigated. With a preliminary study at a shake-flask scale, the microalgae cultivation was scaled up in a photobioreactor containing an inorganic fertilizer medium. Microalgae cultured in a shake flask containing 0.1 g L–1 of urea and 1.0 g L–1 of NPK (Nitrogen: Phosphorus: Potassium) fertilizers showed a promising result in biomass productivity. During the scale-up study in a photobioreactor the specific growth rate (μ d–1), biomass yield (g L–1), and total biomass productivity (mg L–1 d–1), was found to be 0.265, 1.19 and 66.1, respectively. The lipid yield (%) as per dry cell weight (DCW) and lipid productivity (mg L–1 d–1) was found to be a maximum of 28.55 and 18.87, respectively, in a stationary phase of the microalgae growth. The fatty acids methyl ester profile was proven to be desirable for biodiesel production.
In the present study, spheroplasts from the aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic marine bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis were generated and cultivated. In the presence of penicillin, the spheroplasts grew and enlarged in marine broth without undergoing cell division. However, continuous light inhibited their enlargement, and they were therefore cultivated in the dark. Cellular DNA was quantified at various time points (0, 24, and 48 h) and temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) using real-time quantitative PCR. The DNA content was highest at 30°C in the absence of penicillin, whereas there was no observable change with exposure to penicillin at all evaluated temperatures. During growth, larger spheroplasts were more frequently observed at 25°C in the presence of penicillin. These results demonstrate that the optimal culture conditions for the enlargement of spheroplasts in E. litoralis differ from those required for cell division.
In a previous study, we isolated Leifsonia sp. strain SIU, a new bacterium from agricultured soil. The bacterium was tested for its ability to degrade caffeine. The isolate was encapsulated in gellan gum and its ability to degrade caffeine was compared with the free cells. The optimal caffeine degradation was attained at a gellan gum concentration of 0.75% (w/v), a bead size of 4 mm diameter, and 250 beads per 100 mL of medium. At a caffeine concentration of 0.1 g/L, immobilised cells of the strain SIU degraded caffeine within 9 h, which is faster when compared to the case of free cells, in which it took 12 h to degrade. The immobilised cells degraded caffeine completely within 39 and 78 h at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, while the free cells took 72 and 148 h at 0.5 and 1.0 g/L, respectively. At higher caffeine concentrations, immobilised cells exhibited a higher caffeine degradation rate. At concentrations of 1.5 and 2.0 g/L, caffeine-degrading activities of both immobilised and free cells were inhibited. The immobilised cells showed no loss in caffeine-degrading activity after being used repeatedly for nine 24-h cycles. The effect of heavy metals on immobilised cells was also tested. This study showed an increase in caffeine degradation efficiency when the cells were encapsulated in gellan gum.
A large number of propeptide regions from various proteins have been identified which function as intramolecular chaperones and assist the folding of the respective functional domains. The same polypeptide can fold into an altered conformation because of a mutated intramolecular chaperone and can maintain the “memory” of the folding process (new physicochemical properties). Two new kinds of Rhizomucor miehei lipase (RML) were constructed by replacing its propeptide region with that from either Rhizopus chinensis lipase (RCL) or Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). The enzymatic properties were also analyzed and compared between wild-type RML and the mutants. The results indicated that the same polypeptide can fold into different conformations because of changes in the propeptide region.
Pantoea agglomerans YS19 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium isolated from rice. As well as having the ability to form a biofilm, as do most bacteria, it is characterized by the formation of a unique multicellular aggregate structure called symplasmata. Indole is traditionally known as a metabolite of the amino acid tryptophan, which, however, has recently been shown to participate in various regulations of bacterial physiological processes, including stress resistance, quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Here, an indole signal was found to promote symplasmata formation, yet inhibit biofilm formation, indicating different regulatory pathways of indole in the construction of the two structures. However, symplasmata showed almost an equivalent stress-resistant capability, as compared with biofilms, for YS19 to confront acids, heavy metals (Cu2+), and UV treatments. Moreover, indole was tested to show a promoting effect on exopolysaccharides (EPS) production and an inhibition effect on the expression of an outer membrane protein OmpW. These results provide evidence for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of indole on such multicellular aggregates.