The adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) is responsible for its selective substrate recognition and activation of the substrate (yielding an acyl-O-AMP intermediate) on ATP consumption. DhbF is an NRPS involved in bacillibactin synthesis and consists of multiple domains [adenylation domain, condensation domain, peptidyl carrier protein (PCP) domain, and thioesterase domain]; DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 (here named) are "internal" adenylation domains in the multidomain enzyme DhbF. We firstly succeeded in expressing and purifying the "internal" adenylation domains DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 separately. Furthermore, we initially demonstrated dipeptide synthesis by "internal" adenylation domains. When glycine and L-cysteine were used as substrates of DhbFA1, the formation of N-glycyl-L-cysteine (Gly-Cys) was observed. Furthermore, when L-threonine and L-cysteine were used as substrates of DhbFA2, N-L-threonyl-L-cysteine (Thr-Cys) was formed. These findings showed that both adenylation domains produced dipeptides by forming a carbon-nitrogen bond comprising the carboxyl group of an amino acid and the amino group of L-cysteine, although these adenylation domains are acid-thiol ligase using 4'-phosphopantetheine (bound to the PCP domain) as a substrate. Furthermore, DhbFA1 and DhbFA2 synthesized oligopeptides as well as dipeptides.
Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an important polymeric substance that plays essential roles in cell aggregation and nutrient provision for the sessile bacteria. eDNA in bacterial biofilms was extensively studied. Here we found that eDNA also exists in symplasmata, a bacterial cell aggregate, which is different to a biofilm, in the rice enophyte Pantoea agglomerans YS19. We found that exogenous eDNA enhanced the formation and stability of symplasmata significantly, and that, exogenous eDNA also improved the stress resistance and colonization ability of the bacterium on host rice. These results strongly indicate novel roles of the eDNA in Pantoea agglomerans YS19, showing its special relation to the stress-resistance and endophyte-host association of the strain.
Extracellular α-1,3-glucanase HF90 (AglST2), with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE-estimated molecular mass of approximately 91 kDa, was homogenously purified from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3. AglST2 showed a high homology with mycodextranase in an amino acid sequence and demonstrated specificity with an α-1,3-glycosidic linkage of homo α-1,3-glucan. It has been suggested that AglST2 may be a new type of α-1,3-glucanase. The optimum pH and temperature of AglST2 were pH 5.5 and 60°C, respectively. AglST2 action was significantly stimulated in the presence of 5–20% (w/v) NaCl, and 1 mM metal ions Mn2+ and Co2+. On the other hand, it was inhibited by 1 mM of Ag+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Ni2+. Regarding the stability properties, AglST2 retained more than 80% of its maximum activity over a pH range of 5.0–7.0 at up to 60°C and in the presence of 0–20% (w/v) NaCl. Based on these results, the properties of AglST2 were comparable with those of AglST1, which had been previously purified and characterized from S. thermodiastaticus HF3-3 previously. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of AglST2 showed a good agreement with that of AglST1, suggesting that AglST1 was generated from AglST2 by proteolysis during cultivation. MALDI-TOF mass analysis suggested that AglST1 might be generated from AglST2 by the proteolytic removal of C-terminus polypeptide (approximately 20 kDa). Our investigation thus revealed the properties of AglST2, such as tolerance against high temperature, salts, and surfactants, which have promising industrial applications.
Laccases are unable to oxidize the non-phenolic components of complex lignin polymer due to their less redox potential (E0). Catalytic efficiency of laccases relies on the mediators that potentiates their oxidative strength; for breaking the recalcitrant lignin. Laccase from Bacillus sp. SS4 was evaluated for its compatibility with natural and synthetic mediators. (2 mM). It was found that acetosyringone, vanillin, orcinol and veratraldehyde have no adverse effect on the laccase activity up to 3 h. Syringaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and hydroquinone reduced the enzyme activity ≥50% after 1.0 h, but laccase activity remained 100 to ~120% in the presence of synthetic mediators HBT (1-Hydroxylbenzotrizole) and ABTS. (2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) after 3 h. MgSO4 and MnSO4 (40 mM) increased the enzyme activity 3.5 fold and the enzyme possessed ≥70% activity at a very high concentration. (2 M) of NaCl. The enzyme retained 40–110% activity in the presence of 10% DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide), acetone, methanol and ethyl acetate. On the other hand, CuSO4 (100 μM) induced the laccase production 8.5 fold without increasing the growth of bacterial cells. Laccase from SS4 appropriately decolorized the indigo carmine (50 μM) completely in the presence of acetosyringone (100 μM) within 10 min and 25% decolorization was observed after 4 h without any mediator.
At present, the quantitation of the mycelial weight of the industrially important non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae, which is used for manufacturing koji, is performed by quantitating N-acetylglucosamine. However, since N-acetylglucosamine is a cell wall component, the extraction procedure is costly and tedious, and its quantitative performance is poor. Here, we report a novel method for the quantitation of A. oryzae mycelial weight. The amount of glycosylceramide significantly correlated with both the mycelial weight of A. oryzae and the amount of N-acetylglucosamine, an established index of the mycelial weight of A. oryzae in koji. This new method is simple and efficient and can be used in the brewing and food industries to determine the mycelial weight of A. oryzae.
The clonal strains, phycoerythrin(PE)-rich- and PE-poor strains, of the unicellular, fresh water cyanobacterium Aphanothece sacrum (Suringar) Okada (Suizenji Nori, in Japanese) were isolated from traditional open-air aquafarms in Japan. A. sacrum appeared to be oligotrophic on the basis of its growth characteristics. The optimum temperature for growth was around 20°C. Maximum growth and biomass increase at 20°C was obtained under light intensities between 40 to 80 μmol m–2 s–1 (fluorescent lamps, 12 h light/12 h dark cycles) and between 40 to 120 μmol m–2 s–1 for PE-rich and PE-poor strains, respectively, of A. sacrum . Purified exopolysaccharide (EPS) of A. sacrum has a molecular weight of ca. 104 kDa with five major monosaccharides (glucose, xylose, rhamnose, galactose and mannose; ≥85 mol%). We also deciphered the whole genome sequence of the two strains of A. sacrum. The putative genes involved in the polymerization, chain length control, and export of EPS would contribute to understand the biosynthetic process of their extremely high molecular weight EPS. The putative genes encoding Wzx-Wzy-Wzz- and Wza-Wzb-Wzc were conserved in the A. sacrum strains FPU1 and FPU3. This result suggests that the Wzy-dependent pathway participates in the EPS production of A. sacrum.
Corynebacterium glutamicum is used for the industrial production of various metabolites, including L-glutamic acid and L-lysine. With the aim of understanding the post-transcriptional regulation of amino acid biosynthesis in this bacterium, we investigated the role of RNase E/G in the degradation of mRNAs encoding metabolic enzymes. In this study, we found that the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE was overexpressed in ΔrneG mutant cells grown on various carbon sources. The level of metE mRNA was also approximately 6- to 10-fold higher in the ΔrneG mutant strain than in the wild-type strain. A rifampicin chase experiment showed that the half-life of metE mRNA was approximately 4.2 times longer in the ΔrneG mutant than in the wild-type strain. These results showed that RNase E/G is involved in the degradation of metE mRNA in C. glutamicum.