The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Online ISSN : 1349-8037
Print ISSN : 0022-1260
ISSN-L : 0022-1260
Current issue
Showing 1-7 articles out of 7 articles from the selected issue
Full Papers
  • Jia-fu Huang, Dan-feng Zhang, Bo Leng, Zhi-chao Lin, Yu-tian Pan
    2019 Volume 65 Issue 4 Pages 163-172
    Published: 2019
    Released: September 14, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 12, 2019

    In the present study, the conditions for Azotobacter chroococcum fermentation using Agaricus bisporus wastewater as the culture medium were optimized. We analyzed the total number of living A. chroococcum in the fermentation broth, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Single-factor experiments were carried out, where a Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out three factors from the original six processing factors wastewater solubility, initial pH, inoculum size, liquid volume, culture temperature, and rotation speed that affected the total number of viable A. chroococcum. The Box-Behnken response surface method was used to optimize the interactions between the three main factors and to predict the optimal fermentation conditions. Factors significantly affecting the total number of viable A. chroococcum, including rotation speed, wastewater solubility, and culture temperature, were investigated. The optimum conditions for A. chroococcum fermentation in A. bisporus wastewater were a rotation speed of 200 rpm, a solubility of 0.25%, a culture temperature of 26°C, an initial pH of 6.8, a 5% inoculation volume, a culture time of 48 h, and a liquid volume of 120 mL in a 250 mL flask. Under these conditions, the concentration of total viable bacteria reached 4.29 ± 0.02 ✕ 107 Obj/mL A. bisporus wastewater can be used for the cultivation of A. chroococcum.

    Download PDF (576K)
  • Shazwana Sha'arani, Hirofumi Hara, Hiroya Araie, Iwane Suzuki, Megat J ...
    2019 Volume 65 Issue 4 Pages 173-179
    Published: 2019
    Released: September 14, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 28, 2019

    This study gives the first picture of whole RNA-Sequencing analysis of a PCB-degrading microbe, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Genes that were highly expressed in biphenyl-grown cells, compared with pyruvate-grown cells, were chosen based on the Reads Per Kilobase Million (RPKM) value and were summarized based on the criteria of RPKM ≥100 and fold change ≥2.0. Consequently, 266 total genes were identified as genes expressed particularly for the degradation of biphenyl. After comparison with previous microarray data that identified highly-expressed genes, based on a fold change ≥2.0 and p-value ≤0.05, 62 highly-expressed genes from biphenyl-grown cells were determined from both analytical platforms. As these 62 genes involve known PCB degradation genes, such as bph, etb, and ebd, the genes identified in this study can be considered as essential genes for PCB/biphenyl degradation. In the 62 genes, eleven genes encoding hypothetical proteins were highly expressed in the biphenyl-grown cells. Meanwhile, we identified several highly-expressed unannotated DNA regions on the opposite strand. In order to verify the encoded proteins, two regions were cloned into an expression vector. A protein was successfully obtained from one region at approximately 25 kDa from the unannotated strand. Thus, the genome sequence with transcriptomic analysis gives new insight, considering re-annotation of the genome of R. jostii RHA1, and provides a clearer picture of PCB/biphenyl degradation in this strain.

    Download PDF (101K)
  • Yuuki Tanabe, Seisuke Arai, Ikuo Wada, Hiroyuki Adachi, Takashi Kamaku ...
    2019 Volume 65 Issue 4 Pages 180-187
    Published: 2019
    Released: September 14, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: January 31, 2019

    After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that efficient incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles is also dependent on the function of Svp26. Mnt2 and Mnt3 are Golgi-localized α-1,3-mannosyltransferases with type II membrane topology involved in protein O-glycosylation. Immunoisolation of the yeast Golgi subcompartments quantitatively showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 are more abundant in the early Golgi fraction than in the late Golgi fraction. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy showed that deletion of the SVP26 gene results in the accumulation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 in ER. Using an in vitro COPII vesicle formation assay, we further demonstrate that Svp26 facilitates incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles. Finally, we showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 were co-immunoprecipitated with Svp26 from digitonin-solubilized membranes. These results indicate that Svp26 functions as an ER exit adaptor protein of Mnt2 and Mnt3.

    Download PDF (1330K)
  • Nho-Eul Song, Chan-Mi Lee, Sang-Ho Baik
    2019 Volume 65 Issue 4 Pages 188-196
    Published: 2019
    Released: September 14, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 15, 2019

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are widely present in nearly all fermented foods and beverages, and excess consumption can cause adverse health effects. To prepare BA-free Korean black raspberry wine (BRW), four autochthonous starter yeast strains without hazardous BA synthesis activity were selected and their physiological and biochemical properties were examined. The selected strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on 26S rDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that isolates were quite different from commercial wine yeast S. cerevisiae (52.4% similarity), but genetically relevant to commercial beer yeasts. The four S. cerevisiae strains produced over 10% ethanol during BRW fermentation. In addition, the fermented BRW with these strains showed higher levels of total flavonoids and similar antioxidant activity compared to the control sample. Potentially hazardous BAs that commonly occur in black raspberry extract (BRE) such as cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine were also not detected in the fermented BRW. Thus, we suggest that our strains are promising fermentation tools to ensure high quality and enhanced functionality in the production of BA-free BRW.

    Download PDF (980K)
  • Jirayut Euanorasetr, Bungonsiri Intra, Nutthanit Thunmrongsiri, Jitra ...
    2019 Volume 65 Issue 4 Pages 197-203
    Published: 2019
    Released: September 14, 2019
    [Advance publication] Released: February 28, 2019

    Spirotetronate compounds are polyketide secondary metabolites with diverse biological functions, such as antibacterial, antitumor and antiviral activities. Three pure spirotetronate compounds (2EPS-A, -B, -C) isolated from Actinomadura strain 2EPS showed inhibitory activity against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). 2EPS-A, -B and -C demonstrated the LC50 values of 11.6, 27.5 and 12.0 μg/ml, respectively, in a test of cytotoxicity to Vero cells. The least cytotoxic, 2EPS-B, was further analyzed for its impact on viral propagation in a cell-based replication assay. At a concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, it could reduce the DENV-2 infection in Vero cells by about 94% when cells infected with DENV-2 were exposed to 2EPS-B, whereas direct treatment of DENV-2 with 2EPS-B at the same concentration prior to subsequent infection to Vero cell yielded no inhibition. 2EPS-A, -B an -C showed strong DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease inhibition in an in vitro assay, with IC50 values of 1.94 ± 0.18, 1.47 ± 0.15 and 2.51 ± 0.21 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the spirotetronate compounds appear to prevent viral replication and viral assembly by inhibition of the viral protease.

    Download PDF (330K)
Short Communications