In the present study, the conditions for Azotobacter chroococcum fermentation using Agaricus bisporus wastewater as the culture medium were optimized. We analyzed the total number of living A. chroococcum in the fermentation broth, using multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Single-factor experiments were carried out, where a Plackett-Burman design was used to screen out three factors from the original six processing factors wastewater solubility, initial pH, inoculum size, liquid volume, culture temperature, and rotation speed that affected the total number of viable A. chroococcum. The Box-Behnken response surface method was used to optimize the interactions between the three main factors and to predict the optimal fermentation conditions. Factors significantly affecting the total number of viable A. chroococcum, including rotation speed, wastewater solubility, and culture temperature, were investigated. The optimum conditions for A. chroococcum fermentation in A. bisporus wastewater were a rotation speed of 200 rpm, a solubility of 0.25%, a culture temperature of 26°C, an initial pH of 6.8, a 5% inoculation volume, a culture time of 48 h, and a liquid volume of 120 mL in a 250 mL flask. Under these conditions, the concentration of total viable bacteria reached 4.29 ± 0.02 ✕ 107 Obj/mL A. bisporus wastewater can be used for the cultivation of A. chroococcum.
This study gives the first picture of whole RNA-Sequencing analysis of a PCB-degrading microbe, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. Genes that were highly expressed in biphenyl-grown cells, compared with pyruvate-grown cells, were chosen based on the Reads Per Kilobase Million (RPKM) value and were summarized based on the criteria of RPKM ≥100 and fold change ≥2.0. Consequently, 266 total genes were identified as genes expressed particularly for the degradation of biphenyl. After comparison with previous microarray data that identified highly-expressed genes, based on a fold change ≥2.0 and p-value ≤0.05, 62 highly-expressed genes from biphenyl-grown cells were determined from both analytical platforms. As these 62 genes involve known PCB degradation genes, such as bph, etb, and ebd, the genes identified in this study can be considered as essential genes for PCB/biphenyl degradation. In the 62 genes, eleven genes encoding hypothetical proteins were highly expressed in the biphenyl-grown cells. Meanwhile, we identified several highly-expressed unannotated DNA regions on the opposite strand. In order to verify the encoded proteins, two regions were cloned into an expression vector. A protein was successfully obtained from one region at approximately 25 kDa from the unannotated strand. Thus, the genome sequence with transcriptomic analysis gives new insight, considering re-annotation of the genome of R. jostii RHA1, and provides a clearer picture of PCB/biphenyl degradation in this strain.
After being translocated into the ER lumen, membrane and secretory proteins are transported from the ER to the early Golgi by COPII vesicles. Incorporation of these cargo proteins into COPII vesicles are facilitated either by direct interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins or by ER exit adaptor proteins which mediate the interaction of cargo proteins with COPII coat proteins. Svp26 is one of the ER exit adaptor proteins in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ER exit of several type II membrane proteins have been reported to be facilitated by Svp26. We demonstrate here that efficient incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles is also dependent on the function of Svp26. Mnt2 and Mnt3 are Golgi-localized α-1,3-mannosyltransferases with type II membrane topology involved in protein O-glycosylation. Immunoisolation of the yeast Golgi subcompartments quantitatively showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 are more abundant in the early Golgi fraction than in the late Golgi fraction. Subcellular fractionation and fluorescence microscopy showed that deletion of the SVP26 gene results in the accumulation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 in ER. Using an in vitro COPII vesicle formation assay, we further demonstrate that Svp26 facilitates incorporation of Mnt2 and Mnt3 into COPII vesicles. Finally, we showed that Mnt2 and Mnt3 were co-immunoprecipitated with Svp26 from digitonin-solubilized membranes. These results indicate that Svp26 functions as an ER exit adaptor protein of Mnt2 and Mnt3.
Biogenic amines (BAs) are widely present in nearly all fermented foods and beverages, and excess consumption can cause adverse health effects. To prepare BA-free Korean black raspberry wine (BRW), four autochthonous starter yeast strains without hazardous BA synthesis activity were selected and their physiological and biochemical properties were examined. The selected strains were identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on 26S rDNA sequencing and microsatellite analysis. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that isolates were quite different from commercial wine yeast S. cerevisiae (52.4% similarity), but genetically relevant to commercial beer yeasts. The four S. cerevisiae strains produced over 10% ethanol during BRW fermentation. In addition, the fermented BRW with these strains showed higher levels of total flavonoids and similar antioxidant activity compared to the control sample. Potentially hazardous BAs that commonly occur in black raspberry extract (BRE) such as cadaverine, histamine, and spermidine were also not detected in the fermented BRW. Thus, we suggest that our strains are promising fermentation tools to ensure high quality and enhanced functionality in the production of BA-free BRW.
Spirotetronate compounds are polyketide secondary metabolites with diverse biological functions, such as antibacterial, antitumor and antiviral activities. Three pure spirotetronate compounds (2EPS-A, -B, -C) isolated from Actinomadura strain 2EPS showed inhibitory activity against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2). 2EPS-A, -B and -C demonstrated the LC50 values of 11.6, 27.5 and 12.0 μg/ml, respectively, in a test of cytotoxicity to Vero cells. The least cytotoxic, 2EPS-B, was further analyzed for its impact on viral propagation in a cell-based replication assay. At a concentration of 6.25 μg/ml, it could reduce the DENV-2 infection in Vero cells by about 94% when cells infected with DENV-2 were exposed to 2EPS-B, whereas direct treatment of DENV-2 with 2EPS-B at the same concentration prior to subsequent infection to Vero cell yielded no inhibition. 2EPS-A, -B an -C showed strong DENV-2 NS2B-NS3 protease inhibition in an in vitro assay, with IC50 values of 1.94 ± 0.18, 1.47 ± 0.15 and 2.51 ± 0.21 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the spirotetronate compounds appear to prevent viral replication and viral assembly by inhibition of the viral protease.
For enhancing the lactate (LA) fraction of poly(lactate-co-3-hydroxybutyrate)s [P(LA-co-3HB)s], an exogenous D-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhD) was introduced into Escherichia coli. Recombinant strains of E. coli DH5α, LS5218, and XL1-Blue harboring the ldhD gene from Lactobacillus acetotolerans HT, together with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-biosynthetic genes containing a lactate-polymerizing enzyme (modified PHA synthase) gene, accumulated the P(LA-co-3HB) copolymer from glucose under microaerobic conditions (100 strokes/min). The LA fraction of copolymers synthesized in the strains of DH5α, LS5218, and XL1-Blue were 19.8, 15.7, and 28.5 mol%, respectively, which were higher than those of the strains without the ldhD gene (<6.7 mol% of LA units). Introduction of the exogenous ldhD gene into E. coli strains resulted in an enhanced LA fraction in P(LA-co-3HB)s.
Azorhizobium caulinodans, a kind of rhizobia, has a reb operon encoding pathogenic R-body components, whose expression is usually repressed by a transcription factor PraR. Mutation on praR induced a high expression of reb operon and the formation of aberrant nodules, in which both morphologically normal and shrunken host cells were observed. Histochemical GUS analyses of praR mutant expressing reb operon-uidA fusion revealed that the bacterial cells within the normal host cells highly expressed the reb operon, but rarely produced R-bodies. On the other hand, the bacterial cells within the shrunken host cells frequently produced R-bodies but rarely expressed the reb operon. This suggests that R-body production is not only regulated at the transcriptional level, but by other regulatory mechanisms as well.