Oscillation in bacterial bioluminescence from Photobacterium kishitanii liquid culture was examined regarding reproducibility and bacterial cell activities, i.e., dissolved oxygen (DO) consumption, esterase activity, and product production rate. A frequent increase in DO was suspected to be due to a rapid decrease in luminescence, and a simple model describing not only the monotonous decrease in cell activity, but also the luminescence-DO relationship is proposed.
Cyanobacteria are an important component in the rice field ecosystem and are a well known source of natural biofertilizer. Pesticidal application for the control of pests in rice field soil has led to several environmental problems, and poses a great threat to these beneficial microorganisms. Studies on the impact of pesticides on the diazotrophic growth and survivability of these microorganisms have recently gained much attention. The present paper describes the effects of an iterated use of the insecticide deltamethrin (2.8% EC) on the growth and nitrogen fixation capacity of the filamentous cyanobacterium Calothrix sp. (strain GUEco 1002). This organism has shown a varying degree of sensitivity to the insecticide. For evaluating the deltamethrin toxicity, the test organism was subjected to varying concentrations of deltamethrin i.e. 17.5 ppm, 35 ppm, 70 ppm and 140 ppm based upon LC50 for 20 days. The data obtained in the laboratory revealed that the treatment of the test organism with deltamethrin (17.5–140 ppm) negatively affected its growth, pigments, protein and nitrogen content in a time dose dependent manner. In contrast, carbohydrate content significantly increased with increasing concentrations of deltamethrin, this effect being more prominent at 140 ppm treatment (38%). At this high level (140 ppm), the test organism showed a significant decrease in dry weight biomass (46%), chlorophyll-a (72%), carotenoids (57%), phycocyanin (67%), protein (69%) and nitrogen content (61%) over the control. A little, but insignificant, stimulatory effect on nitrogen content was recorded at 17.5 ppm of the insecticide which however, was the opposite in the case of growth, pigments, carbohydrate and protein content.
An aerobic bacterium, designated strain 5N-3 (NBRC 113055), that degrades cis-dichloroethene (cDCE) was isolated from a sea sediment in Japan. Strain 5N-3 was able to degrade a certain amount of cDCE in the presence of pyruvate without the action of inducers. In the presence of inducers, such as phenol and benzene, the strain completely removed cDCE. By the application of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene sequencing and average nucleotide identity analyses, the strain 5N-3 was identified as Marinobacter salsuginis. On the other hand, identified species of Marinobacter are not known to degrade cDCE at all. A draft genome sequence analysis of the strain 5N-3 suggested that the dmp-homologous operon (operon for phenol degradation) may be contributing to the aerobic degradation of cDCE. This is the first report on an aerobic marine bacterium that has been found to degrade cDCE.
The discharge of industrial dyes and their breakdown products are often environmentally harmful. Here, we describe a biodegradation method using Burkholderia multivorans CCA53, which exhibits a capacity to degrade azo dyes, particularly ethyl red. Under the optimized culture conditions, 100 μM ethyl red was degraded more than 99% after incubation for 8 h. Real-time PCR analysis of azoR1 and azoR2, encoding two azoreductases, revealed that transcription level of these genes is enhanced at early phase under the optimized conditions. For a more practical approach, hydrolysates were prepared from eucalyptus or Japanese cedar chips or rice straw, and rice straw hydrolysate was used as the best medium for ethyl red biodegradation. Under those conditions, ethyl red was also degraded with high efficiency (>91%). We have thus constructed a potentially economical method for the biodegradation of ethyl red.
Bacillus based probiotics are becoming relevant as alternatives to antibiotics used in poultry production and in other animal husbandry. This study describes the isolation of 48 Bacillus spp. candidates, from chickens and chicken environments, for use as potential probiotics in poultry production. These isolates, plus a further 18, were tested in a comprehensive in vitro screening regime that was specifically designed to select the best isolates that satisfied multiple modes of action desirable for commercial poultry probiotics. This screening programme involved the evaluation of the ability of the isolates to survive and grow in the limiting conditions of the chicken gastrointestinal tract. Only 11 of the isolates fulfilled these criteria; hence, they were further evaluated for the ability to adhere to epithelial cells, produce extracellular enzymes, and to demonstrate antagonistic activity against selected pathogens of significant importance in poultry production. Of these, a total of 6 isolates were selected, due to their all-round probiotic capability. Identification by 16S RNA sequencing confirmed these isolates as B. subtilis and B. velezensis, identities which are generally regarded as safe. The Bacillus isolates reported in our study exhibit strong all-inclusive probiotic effects and can potentially be formulated as a probiotic preparation for poultry production.
Naturally occurring fungi have been used in the traditional production of dried bonito, Katsuobushi, in Japan. In this study, we analyzed the fungal population present during Katsuobushi production. Amplicon sequence analysis of ITS1 indicated that Aspergillus spp. are predominant throughout the production process. In addition, culture-dependent analyzes identified three species Aspergillus chevalieri, Aspergillus montevidensis, and Aspergillus sydowii, based on sequencing of benA, caM, and rpb2 genes. A. chevalieri isolates were classified into teleomorphic and anamorphic strains based on morphological analysis. A. chevarieri was the dominant species throughout the production process, whereas A. montevidensis increased and A. sydowii decreased in abundance during Katsuobushi production. Our study will enhance the understanding of fungal species involved in traditional Katsuobushi production.