Thioredoxins (Trxs) and protein-disulfide isomerases (PDIs) are believed to play a pivotal role in ensuring the proper folding of proteins, facilitating appropriate functioning of proteins, and maintaining intracellular redox homeostasis in bacteria. Two thioredoxins (Trxs) and three thiol-disulfide isomerases (PDIs) have been annotated in Corynebacterium glutamicum. However, nothing is known about their functional diversity in the redox regulation of proteins. Thus, we here analyzed the Trx- and PDI-dependent redox shifts of ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), insulin, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), and several thiol-dependent peroxidases by measuring enzyme activity and thiol status in vitro. We found that the two Trxs and the three PDIs had activities in the cleavage of the disulfidebond, whereas the PDIs had a lower efficiency than the two Trxs. Trx2 could activate thiol-dependent peroxidases with an efficiency comparable with that of Trx1, but the PDIs were inefficient. The redox-active Cys-X-X-Cys motif harbored in both Trxs and PDIs was essential to supply efficiently the donor of reducing equivalents for protein disulfides. In addition, stress-responsive extracytoplasmic function (ECF)-sigma factor H (SigH)-dependent Trxs and PDIs expressions were observed. These results contributed importantly to our overall understanding of reducing functionality of the Trx and PDI systems, and also highlighted the complexity and plasticity of the intracellular redox network.
The genes encoding α-1,3-glucanases (Agls; AglST1 and AglST2) from Streptomyces thermodiastaticus HF3-3 were cloned and were then expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami B (DE3). We purified the resultant histidine (His)-tagged α-1,3-glucanases (recombinant enzymes, rAglST1 and rAglST2). Both the recombinant enzymes were similar to the wild-type enzymes. We examined the effects of rAglST1 and rAglST2 on the formation and degradation of biofilms on glass plates with Streptococcus mutans NRBC 13955 by evaluating the biofilm content (%), release of reducing sugar (mM), release of S. mutans (log CFU/mL), and the biofilm structure using laser scanning microscopy (LSM). The results showed that after incubation for 16 h, rAglST1 and rAglST2 reduced the formation of biofilm to 52% and 49% of the control, respectively. The result may reflect the fact that the concentration of the reducing sugar and the number of S. mutans cells in the rAglATs-added medium were higher than in the control medium. After an 8-h treatment with rAglST1 and rAglST2, biofilms decreased to less than 60% of the control. The number of S. mutans cells in the reaction mixture gradually increased during the incubation period. The enzymes can degrade the biofilms that were pre-formed on the glass plate by more than 50% after a 30-min incubation in the presence of toothpaste ingredients (1% w/v of sodium fluoride, benzethonium chloride, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) at 50°C. Our study showed that rAglST1 and rAglST2 have advantageous properties for dental care applications.
The degradation pathways in microorganisms for piperidine, a secondary amine with various applications, are not yet fully understood, especially in non-Mycobacterium species. In this study, we have identified a piperidine-degrading isolate (KU43P) from a soil sample collected in a cultivation field in Osaka, Japan, and characterized its mechanisms of piperidine degradation, thereby furthering current understanding of the process. The genome of isolate KU43P consists of a 5,869,691-bp circular chromosome with 62.67% GC content and with 5,294 predicted protein-coding genes, 77 tRNA genes, and 22 rRNA genes. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and average nucleotide identity analysis suggest that the isolate is a novel species of the Pseudomonas putida group in the genus Pseudomonas. The genomic region encoding the piperidine degradation pathway, designated as the pip gene cluster, was identified using transposon mutagenesis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deletion analyses of pipA, which encodes a glutamine synthetase (GS)-like protein, and pipBa, which encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, indicate that pipA and pipBa are involved in piperidine metabolism and suggest that pipA is involved in the first step of the piperidine metabolic pathway. Escherichia coli whole cells overexpressing PipA converted piperidine and glutamate to γ-glutamylpiperidide, and crude cell extract enzyme assays of PipA showed that this reaction requires ATP and Mg2+. These results clearly show that pipA encodes γ-glutamylpiperidide synthetase and that piperidine is first glutamylated and then hydroxylated in the piperidine degradation pathway of Pseudomonas sp. strain KU43P. This study has filled a void in the general knowledge of the microbial degradation of amine compounds
An Indonesian soil fungus, Talaromyces pinophilus BioMCC-f.T.3979 was cultured to find novel scaffolds of Plasmodium falciparum dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (PfDHODH) inhibitors. We obtained altenusin (1), which inhibits PfDHODH, with an IC50 value of 5.9 μM, along with other metabolites: mitorubrinol (2) and mitorubrinic acid (3). Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited PfDHODH but displayed no activity against the human orthologue. They also inhibited P. falciparum 3D7 cell growth in vitro. Compound 3 showed little PfDHODH inhibitory activity or cell growth inhibitory activity.
In order to study the growth promoting potential of endophytic bacteria from Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, a total of 25 different bacteria belonging to 7 genera were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, including Bacillus, Micrococcus, Lysinibacillus, Brevibacterium, Halomonas, Kocuria and Terribacillus. In this study, thirteen bacterial strains were found to solubilize inorganic phosphate, with the isolate Kocuria rosea (EH15) having the highest phosphorus dissolution activity (3.70 μg/mL). Twelve isolates were positive for nitrogen fixation abilities. Twenty-two strains produced indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the presence of L-tryptophan, and eleven of the twenty-two isolates synthesized IAA in the absence of L-tryptophan. The strain K. rosea (EH15) was capable of producing the highest IAA amount (15.36 and 7.98 mg/L) in Luria Bertani (LB) broth containing 0.2% L-tryptophan and lacking L-tryptophan, respectively. Ten isolates had siderophore production abilities with Bacillus amyloliquefacieus EH10 (0.26) and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans EH13 (0.32) showing high siderophore production characteristics. Five bacteria endogenous were selected to evaluate the growth parameters of Brassica napus L. and all isolates exhibited a significantly greater increase in seedling height, root length, fresh weight and dry weight, than the control plants. The greatest improvement appeared in the case of co-inoculation of EH10 and EH15, except in dry weight, and the biggest enhancement in dry weight occurred in the strain EH15. In general, these endophytic bacteria indicate a potential as microbial fertilizers to promote the growth of R. glutinosa Libosch.
A strain LZ1, which showed efficient asymmetric reduction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone to enantiopure (S)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol, which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of a receptor antagonist and antidepressant, was isolated from a soil sample. Based on its morphological, 16S rDNA sequence, and phylogenetic analysis, the strain LZ1 was identified to be Sphingomonas sp. LZ1. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of the species Sphingomonas exhibiting stricter S-enantioselectivity and its use for the asymmetric reduction of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone. Some key reaction parameters involved in the bioreduction catalyzed by whole cells of Sphingomonas sp. LZ1 were subsequently optimized, and the optimized conditions for the synthesis of (S)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol were determined to be as follows: phosphate buffer pH 7.5, 70 mM of 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl) acetophenone, 30 g/L of glucose as a co-substrate, 300 g (wet weight)/L of resting cell as the biocatalyst, and a reaction for 24 h at 30°C and 180 rpm. Under the above conditions, a best yield of 94% and an excellent enantiomeric excess of 99.6% were obtained, respectively. Sphingomonas sp. LZ1 could also asymmetrically reduce a variety of prochiral ketones to their corresponding optical alcohols with excellent enantioselectivity. These results indicated that Sphingomonas sp. LZ1 had a remarkable capacity to reduce 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)acetophenone to its corresponding (S)-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethanol, and might be a new potential biocatalyst for the production of valuable chiral alcohols in industry.