The purpose of this study is to consider types and distribution of main ports of fish landi ng in Japan through landed quantity by kind of fish. Main ports of fish landing are identified as 235 fishing ports with fish landing of more than 5, 000 tons in 1984, when Japanese fishermen caught the largest quantity of fish in the past (Table 1 and Fig. 1).
By means of factor analysis, twenty variables about landed quantity of 235 ports (Table 2) are summarized into seven factors (Table 3). Landing of large quantity of sardines or macker els or saury represented in the first factor is the most commonly chracteristic to the main ports of fish landing in Japan. The ports are classified into ten types, by means of cluster analysis based on seven factors, named from A to J (Fig. 2, Tables 4 and 5).
Shimizu (Shizuoka Prefecture) and Yaizu are the ports of the type A, where frozen or processed fish, tuna, or skipjack are landed in large quantity. Choshi is the port of the type B, where the largest quantity of true sardine, chub mackerel and saury are landed. Kushiro is the port of the type C, where true sardine, saury, walleye pollack, salmon are landed in large quantity. The quantity of fish landing at Kushiro is the largest in Japan in 1984. Squid of the largest quantity in Japan are landed at Hachinohe, the port of the type D. Cod, flatfish, or sand lance are landed in large quantity at the ports of th e type E, whic include Wakkanai, Ishinomaki, Monbetsu, Abashiri and Matsukawaura. Main fish at the ports of the type F is fish in warm water such as horse mackerel and spotted mackerel. The ports of the type F contain Nagasaki, Hakata, Shimonoseki, Shiogama, Sakai, Karatsu, Matsuura, Makurazaki, Ushibuka, Kushikino, Ura and Akune. The type G involves 47 fishing ports, which are characterized by landing of shellfish or sea weed. The type H consists of Wakaura, Misaki, Kagoshima, Funakoshi (Ehime Prefecture), Mochimune, Fukaura, Tarumi, Usui and Uchiura. The characteristic of these ten ports is landing of high price fish such as yellowtail and so on. A lot of salmon are landed on the ports of the type I, whichi nclude Miyako, Nemuro, Kamaishi and Yamada. The other 152 ports of the type J ar e the averaged ports in the total 235 fishing ports.
There are areal and regional differences of the distribution between the types of the main ports of fish landing in Japan (Fig. 3). The types of the main ports can be classified into four categories of distribution:“warm water”“cold water”“warm and cold water” and “shallo w water”. Shimizu, Yaizu and Nagasaki are the typical main ports of the “warm water” category; Kushiro is the most typical port of the “cold water” category; Choshi, Hachinohe and Sakai are the typical main ports of the “warm and cold water” category; Wakaura is the most typical ports of the “shallow water” category. These eight ports are the most typical and important ports of fish landing in Japan. Based on the four categories of the distribution of main ports of fish landing, the coast in Japan can be divided into ten areas of fishing industry (Fig. 4).
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