Most of the previous studies on the internal migration in Spain, although quantitatively important at regional and provincial level, have been largely centered in some limited aspects. Among the major trends that characterize the previous research, the followings are reconsidered in this study : 1) much importance given to net migration at regional and provincial level, rather than to migration flows themselves with great variety in spatial dimension and direction 2) frequent use of the regional demarcations, institutionalized as Comunidades Autónomas
(Autonomous Communities), as a basic unit of analysis, which makes difficult to some extent the best use of the statistical data available on the theme.
In this study, the internal migration in Spain from 1962 to 1993 is analyzed from the viewpoint of migration flows, with special emphasis on the spatial scale and direction of migration as well as the migration fields. The main source of data is the Estadistica de Variaciones Residenciales
) published by the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica (INE)
, which contains origin-destination tables disaggregated to provincial level, and data concerning the characteristics of emigrants and immigrants in each province. The EVR is complemented by the census data in some respects. The province is employed as the basic unit of analysis.
The evolution of the spatial scale and direction of migration shows a radical change in the middle 1970's : migrations from 1962 to 1975 (first period) were unidirectional movements at great distance (interprovincial and interregional), whereas those from 1976 to 1993 (second period) are characterized by the weight of intraprovincial movements and the bidirectionality of interprovincial movements. Through the two periods, the major sector in which migrants are employed has shifted from the industry to the service sector. For the second period, the following groups are found to show high mobility : professional and technical workers, government officials and directors of companies and corporations, and workers with high educational level.
The factor analysis was applied to the interprovincial migration in order to find the major migration fields in each of the two periods mentioned above, which in turn are divided in two sets of short periods. Again clear changes are observed between the two principal periods : in the second period, the migration fields are fragmenting, and none of the immigration center has strong power of attraction, in consequence of the bidirectionality of migratory movements. Special attention should be paid to the decline of the migration field of Barcelona and the expansion of that of Madrid, as well as the early reduction of the migration field of the Basque Country to intraregional scale. The migration fields extracted here do not coincide in many cases with the preestablished regional division, which confirms the effectiveness of the method of study by which no territorial aggregation of data is done prior to the analysis.
The occupational structures of migrants are also examined to see characteristics of each migration field. The result of the analysis shows that the dominant occupations of migrants have evolved not only in response to the sectoral changes in Spanish economy as a whole, but in correspondence with the modifications of spatial patterns of migration. In this context, it is noticeable that there are increasing number of residential movements around the metropolitan areas that do not depend on the creation of new jobs, especially in the migration fields of Barcelona and the Basque Country.
If most of the previous studies put emphasis on the net migration, it is because the migration balance between regions and provinces was supposed to represent the vertical movement from rural to urban area.
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