This article presents a basis for the subdivision of Japan into landform divisions, and to proceed to give the names and locations of the divisions. The fundamental premise in determining landform divisions is a fact that Japan is a single structural and geomorphologic unit from the world or the continental viewpoint, and the whole country is included in the Circum-Pacific Orogenic Zone. Therefore, the orogenc processes that have had much to do in forming the major landforrn features are considered to be the fundamental basis for determining the primary landform units. The following four primary landform divisions or Regions are differentiated by essential difference in recent orogenic movements, landform features, structures and means of coalescence of those arcs. They are ; A) Hokkaido Proper Region B) Northeast Region C) Central Region D) Southwest Region. The latter three regions are each composed of two or more subregions which coincide with the major tectonic units. Each traditional tectonic unit is taken as an independent subregion. These regions and subregions in turn are divided into districts on the basis of the differing effects of endogenic processes such as natures and amount of earth movements or volcanic activities. The districts are again divided into Sections en the basis of minor landform features resulting from either endogenic or exogenic processes. According to the above items, four regions, eight subregions, 51 districts and 240 sections have been established.
The Roman field was planned by Agrimensores with an instrument “Groma.” They made at first straight roads pointing north and south was called Kardos and east west road was called Limes Decumanus. With these two roads as axis they divided their field into sections 2400 Roman feet (nearly equal to 710.4 metres) square which was called Centuria. One Centuria was also divided into 100 Heredia by small lanes. Each Heredium had 240 Roman feet square. (See Map I) It is said that Romulus, the founder of Rome, gave one Heredium to each of his people. One Heredium consisted of two Jugera, and one Jngerum was the area which two oxen could till in one day. One Jugerum had two Acti. One Actus was the area of 120 Roman feet square. We can find as yet in many plains of Italy and other European countries, for example in England, the remnant of the Roman field system. The township system of northern America may be said the hereditary of the Roman field system. Ancient Chinese in Chou Dynasty also planned their field by making the main road crossing each other at right. angles. The north-south road was called T'sien and the east-west one Me. Later on with these two roads as axis they divided the field with basic block of one Ri or 300 Pu (nearly equal to 414.5 metres) square, called Tsing-t'ien. One Tsing-t'ien was composed of nine Fu which was 100 Pu square. Fu means one family's holding, so one Tsing-t'ien was the ideal type of small village which had eight families settled themselves at central Fu section, and had to farm other eight Fus. (See Map II). The field planning of Romans and that of ancient Chinese both with their square shaped field can also be called as square field system, each resembling so much that it seems these two methods must have a common origin. This field system was planned at first in the suburbs of Rome and Loyang, capital of Chou Dynasty, in the age of their city state. Therefore the origin of the former system may be traced back to the Orient where the foremost city state blossomed in human history. The square field system was planned with great accuracy by survey and arranged irrigation ditches alongside the roads and lanes, also the standard shape of the field was decided by ploughing with two oxen. These characteristics of agriculture are just the same which Prof. Gordon Chiide has called as the second revolution of human civilization. He says that this city revolution has occured at first in Mesopotamia, Egypt and India relating each other, and from there it spread out all over the world. We have found not yet the exact remnant of the square field system in these oldest countries. But some inscribed tablets show the continuity of the method adopted for example, Agrimensores of Rome, elected boundary stones after surveying at the corners of the field, and in Mesopotamia we know there were also boundary stones, and in the Sumerian city state the people (Sûb-lugal) were provided with uniformed feud. Chinese Tsing-Vien system also propagated to the east Asian countries, and especially in Japan we have a typical square field system “Jori.” Yamato basin, Nara prefecture, famous with many old temples, is the district in which Jori system was being held perfectly, Naka Gaido, the north-south road which runs in middle of the basin, was the principal meridian, and Yoko. Ohoji, east-west road connecting Sakurai, Yagi, and Takata towns which runs rather southern part of the basin was the base line of Jori of Yamato. Ground Block of Joni was called Ri and was one Ri square, the length Ri which was introduced from Ti of Chinese but prolonged a little, was about 640 metres. (See Map III).
The whole article covers the ways by which over eighty millions of people who are combined in the narrow limited land of Japan, can enjoy the higher level of livings, and can contribute to the development of the world civilization. The conclusion is thus : -to make best of the resources they have which must be developed and utilized conprehensively. The author ficks up the hydropower resource-because this resource in Japan have been said to be abundant and in favorable conditions, but the whole quantity of it in Japan have not yet been known. -, he made through study to know the ultimate quantity of the theoretical hydraulic potential energy (T.H.P.E.) in Japan. The results of this study shows the T.H.P.E.in Japan amounts to 7.734 × 107 kwy namely 7 × 1010 kwh approximately, and the possible hydroelectric power shall be 108 kw when suitable load factor and development efficiency are assumed. And then, he shows the best method of hydropower development in Japan and the kind of chemical industries to be encouraged as the key industry of Japan based on this electric and other resources. Shortly speaking, when those items which are shown hereafter realized comprehensively, Japanese can enjoy a higher level of livings than they have been. 1. Development of hydropower by reservoir system to supply electricity whenever they want. 2. To change the base of industries from coal to hydropower to save coal which is deficient in Japan. 3. Full utilization of sea water and products as Japan is surrounded by sea. 4. To increase in production of fertilizer to give enough food for them. 5. To enlarge the chemical industries as above. 6. Development of forestry and encourage the chemical and other industries from forestry products. 7. To save coal and other fuels by electrification of rail roads, household facilities, and shutting up thermopower stations, etc to increase industrial row materials. 8. To enlarge such export industries as rayon and staple fibers, glass, fertilizers and so on based on their own resources.
Sulphur deposits occur in the formation or volcanics of various geological ages.We can in general classify genetically into two types. One is related with volcanic actions and the other is not related. In Japan, all the deposits belong to the former. after the tertiary to the recent. The sulphur deposits are classified into the following by a different origin. 1) Sublimation deposit 2) Molten sulphur deposit a) Old b) Recent 3) Volcanic sedimentary deposit. a) Sedimentary molten sulphur. b) Sedimentary muddy bed. 1. Old 2. Recent c) Sediments in solfataric springs. 4) Impregnation-replacement deposit. a) Old b) Recent c) Artificial 5) Composite deposit of sedimentary-impregnation -replacement. In foreign, there are many deposits not related with volcanic actions. Some examples are the sulphur ore beds in Sicily Island, Italy, and the sulphur deposits associated to the salt dome in Louisiana, Texas etc. U. S. A. The writer described the occurrences of each type. Sulphur ores are used as materials of refined sulphur and in addition to this as materials to make sulphuric acid with iron sulphide ores-pyrite, marcasite and pyrrhotite. He stated the present internal and external affairs of supply and demand. Besides he expressed his opinions to forecast the future with statistical data.
The methods used in 1949 by geologists of the Oil Section of the Geological Survey of Japan for the survey of the Mobara Gas Field, Chiba Prefecture, are discussed. The writer believes that the primary objective in the stratigraphic study of sedimentary deposits should be the determination of the true relation between the strata and the time planes. The writer recommends that the distribution of the following four elements should be shown on geologic maps of sedimentary basins : (a) Lithologic types ; (b) time planes (indicated by such markers as tuff beds); (c) macrofossil facies; (d) microfossil facies. The combination of elements (a) and (b) indicates the relation of the mappable lithologic units to the time of deposition, and elements (c) and (d) indicate the environment of deposition.
The Ninth General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics was held at the Free University of Brussels from August 21 to September 1, 1951. An informal report on the assembly is given, particularly concerning with the re-admission of Japan to the Union and with the meetings of the Associations of Geodesy and Seismology.