The following observations will be made in Japan during the Geophysical Year. (1) Meteorological observations of upper atmosphere by means of radio-sondes and rawin-sondes up to 50 mb in ordinary days, and up to 10 mb in world days. Solar and terrestrial radiation and the quantity of ozone in the upper air will be observed simultaneously. (2) Intensity-time-space variation of cosmic ray will be observed by means of standard neutron and meson monitors, and the slight variation in intensity by means of a large-size ionization chamber and directions by a vertical cosmic ray indicator. (3) Intensity of air glow will be observed by means of a photometer with photo-electric tube, and spectrum will be photographed by sensitive spectrograph. Especially the photometric and morphological observation of auroras will be conducted in the Antarctic Circle. (4) The standard apparatus for measuring absolute values of geomagnetic elements will be manufactured, so that the comparative calibration of instruments in Japan will be made, and, by using those instruments, and pulsations will be measured. (5) Ionospheric observations will be made as follows : (i) Normal incidence (P't) recording at frequent time intervals (ii) Ionospheric. absorption measurements (iii) Ionospheric wind observations (iv) “Whistlers” (v) Atmospherics. (6) Solar phenomena will be observed as follows : (i) Visual and photographic observations of sunspots (ii) Observation of chromospheric flares by means of spectrohelioscope, and especially observations by means of Lyot-H-alpha filter with automatic camera in World Days, (iii) Monochromatic and. photographic observations using Lyot-H-alpha filter with the light of 5303 A, (iv) Cinematographic observation of shape and brightness of prominence, (v) Observation of solar noise, (vi) Observation of astronomical longitude and latitude by means of photographic zenith telescope. (7) Observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, solar radiation, density at ionospheric layers by means of sounding rockets are being planned, if possible. (8) In addition, observations of distant earthquakes and pulsations as well as oceanographic observations, especially observation of the circulation of middle water of the Central Pacific and the Polar front zone of the same area. (9) In the Antarctic circle, our base will be established on Prince Harald Coast (70°S, 35°E and vicinity) and meteorology, solar and terrestrial radiation, ionosphere aurora and air glow, cosmic rays, geomagnetism, topograph, gravity, seismic activity, etc, will be observed as well as oceanographic observations in the neighbourhood.
With only 19, 695 square miles of territory and some 800, 000 people, Costa Rica is next to the smallest of the Central American nations in both area and population. The country can conveniently be divided into four major geographic regions, namely the Caribbean Lowlands, the Central Highlands, Guanacaste, and the South Pacific Littoral (Map 1). But before describing each of these regions, which is the maim purpose of this paper, it seems desirable to summarize information about land utilization in the nation as a whole.