Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi)
Online ISSN : 1884-0884
Print ISSN : 0022-135X
ISSN-L : 0022-135X
Volume 77 , Issue 4
Showing 1-6 articles out of 6 articles from the selected issue
  • Mutsumi HOYANAGI
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages 193-222
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The name of Tadataka INÔ (1745-1818), who carried out the survey of the almost entire islands of Japan and made excellent maps of Japan in the end of Edo period, became popular all over the country since the Tokyo Geographical Society erected a bronze memorial monument in the Shiba Park, Tokyo in 1889, which was re-established in the same site with a newly designed beautiful stone monument in 1965.
    INÔ's Map officially presented to the Takugawa Government in 1821 compiled after his death by his pupils consisted of those of three scales : large scale (1 : 36, 000, 214 sheets), middle-scale (1 : 216, 000, 8 sheets) and small-scale (1 : 432, 000, 3 sheets). Despite its excellency, they were stored in the Library of the Tokugawa Government, only a few limited number of people were allowed to see them, and INÔ's Map proved its usefulness since the Meiji Restoration. These maps served as the basis and the most important data to meet the urgent needs of accurate maps, charts and statistical figures of the Japanese Islands.
    However, INÔ's Map has an unfortunate history behind it. After it was handed over from the Tokugawa to the Meiji Government, a fire broke out in part of the Imperial Palace in 1873 and destroyed all the maps. INÔ's descendants presented the preserved copies to the Government and they were kept in the Library of the Tokyo Imperial University, while the fire caused by the Kantô Earthquake in 1923 destroyed the Library. In consequence, the number of INÔ's Map which are extant is very small and fragmental today and yet careful studies of these maps, INÔ's books and documents revealed some points which have never been fully appreciated in his achievements, and the followings are the abstracts of these main points.
    (1) INO's motive for undertaking the survey of Japan was the determination of the length of one degree of latitude, which he carefully determined as 28.2 ri (110.85 km) with extraordinary accuracy at that time. However, “Map of the Eastern Part of Japan” presented to the Tokuwawa Government in 1804 was so elaborate, so accurate, so detailed and so beautiful and gave even an impression of a work of art that the Government appointed him as an official and ordered him to continue the survey, which he carried out with extraordinary persistence and skill. Fig. 2 shows the distribution of INÔ's routes of survey, which was carefully drawn from the maps of middle-scale and his records and the total distances of surveyed lines amounted to 33, 724 km. In addition he traveled several times between Edo and Kyôto (Tôkaidô) as well as Kyôtô and Shimonoseki (Sanyô-dô), so that the total distances of his travel were more than 40, 000 km, which he accomplished when he was fifty-six to seventy-two years of age.
    The mapped areas are strictly restricted to those of the actually surveyed and certainly known. Therefore, many parts far distant from the roads and the coast left unmapped because the surveys were not conducted. These are some of evidences of INÔ's scientific mind underlying his map-drawing.
    (2) The Tokugawa Government's needs to the maps were the accurate drawing of configuration of the coastline of the Japanese Islands as well as the detailed distances of important towns along the Tôkai-dô, the Sanyô-dô, and along the northern part of Kyûshû. INÔ's main aims were the determination of latitudes and, if possible the longitudes, of important towns along the most important zone of Japan at that time, that was along the Tôkai-dô and the Sanyô-dô. INÔ's Map met these needs quite well, following basically what is called the method of traverse with great care, and he also adopted astronomical observations.
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  • Shizuo SINDOU
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages 223-246
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the whole area of Musashino district, the demand for groundwater, as the source of service water and industrial water, has been increasing year by year, and in some quarters of this district we have already found a serious matter. Recently, therefore, the conservation and the reasonable development of groundwater have come to be considered as one of the natural resources.
    Meanwhile, as the groundwater supply and preservation conditions are closely related with the geological structure of aquifers, the investigation of subterranean geology of the area concerned should be done first, so as to realize the aim mentioned above.
    As a result of this investigation, I have been able to arrive at a solution to this problem, which is as follows.
    A. Concerning the hydrogeological structure of the area.
    1. According to the deep well boring datum in this area, eight main aquifers are distinguishable. In this paper, I call them A1, A2, .... A8 (lower to upper).
    2. The lower planes of each aquifers indicate undulating features and valleys found on them go from west or south-west to north-east of Musashino district with a low pitched dip.
    3. Horizontal distributions of each aquifers show arciform which open toward northeast (upper aquifers are situated at north-east side).
    4. The stratigraphical positions of aquifers which have been developed, vary in different localities. Therefore, it is difficult to decide easily that excessive utilization of groundwater at upper area has influence on lower area.
    B. Concerning the mechanism of the groundwater preservation.
    1. Pressure surface of groundwater is closely related to the geological structure of aquifers. As a whole, in the western area, it dips toward east and in the eastern, toward north-east.
    2. Also, the type of water level movement is closely related to the stratigraphical position and locality of aquifers.
    3. In general, capacity of discharge (transmissibility, specific capacity) is large at the valleys mentioned above.
    C. Concerning the sources of groundwater and the mechanism of supply.
    1. The main sources of the groundwater are river flow (Tamagawa, Akigawa, Asakawa, etc.) and unconfined groundwater of this area.
    2. The increase and decrease of supply, changes in proportion to utilization of groundwater.
    In this area, quantity of supply is estimated at about 7080 % of the utilization.
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  • [in Japanese]
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages 247-248
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages 248-250
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages 250-252
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • [in Japanese]
    1968 Volume 77 Issue 4 Pages Plate1-Plate2
    Published: August 25, 1968
    Released: November 12, 2009
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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