Wenn dis Sozialgeographie in Deutschland auch methodologisch fruchtbar scheint, herrschen doch darüber noch viele Unklarheiten and ihre Stellung and Bedeutung sind vielfach umstritten. Der Verfasser möchte in diesem Aufsatz die drei wichtigsten Begrife der deutschen Sozialgeographie prufen, urn zu ihrer weiteren Entwicklung beizutragen. Der Begriff “Gruppe” oder “Sozialgruppe” in der Soziologie ist mehrdeutig and bei seiner Definition sind nach dem II. Weltkrieg besonders in den Vereinigten Staaten (group), in Japan (shakai-shudan) and in Deutschland auch im steigenderen Maß das Wir-BewuBtsein, die Haufung des sozialen Handelns oder Verhaltens, der Gruppenzwang, die Norm usw. als Merkmale betont, wahrend eigentlich in der Sozialgeographie Gruppen der gleichartig handelnden Menschen oder Lebensformengruppen, die in der Soziologie als Merkmalsgruppen, Pseudo-Verbande oder guasi-groups von den echten soziologischen Gruppen unterschieden werden, immer die wichtigsten sind. Diese Unterschiede stammen aus den unterschiedlichen Fragestellungen auf die men-schlichen Gruppen in den beiden Wissenschaftsbereichen. Deshalb ware es besser, daß der Geograph das Wort “menschliche Gruppe” wie im Bobeks friiheren Aufsatz “Stellung and Bedeutung der Sozialgeographie”, oder vielmehr ein neues Wort wie “sozialgeographische Gruppe”, gebraucht. Dabei müßte immer gewarnt werden, die menschliche Gruppe im sozialgeographischen Sinn nicht ohne weiteres mit der Gruppe im soziologischen Sinn zu verwechseln and mit dem Gruppenzwang usw. zu verbinden, obwohl sie gegebenenfalls als Ergebnis der Untersuchung der soziologischen Gruppen gleichzusetzen wäre. Da soziale and landschaftlich gepragte Lebensformengruppen oder Gruppen des gleichartig handelnden Menschen die Gesellschaften im sozialgeographischen Sinn (Sozialkörper, komplexe Sozialkörper, Sozialgruppengefiige, Gesellschaftskorper) zusammensetzen, müssen die Fragestellungen auf die Gesellschaften in den beiden Wissenschafsbereichen auch für eigentlich unterschiedlich angenommen werden. Das Gleiche gilt auch fur den Begriff “Sozialraum” (sozialgeographische Einheit, sozialgeographische Raumeinheit, sozialgeographischer Raum), z. B. den. Raum der temporären Almwandlungen, den Raum der Realteilung, American Manufacturing Belt, Megalopolis usw. Trotz den vielen Unklarheiten ist die sozialgeographische Betrachtungsweise, so glaubt der Verfasser, fruchtbar, wie Busch-Zantner, Bobek usw. schon betont haben.
As a technical term of glacial geomorphology, “Push Moraine” has not been introducd to us in any textbook and in any scientific article in Japan until now. The author has participated in the Pre-Congress field tour that was guided by Prof. Fritz Muller (E. T. H. in Zürich) to the Axel Heiberg Isl. of the Canadian High Arctic in the summer of 1972 when the Congress of I. G. U. (International Geographic Union) has been held in Montreal, Canada. Then he has observed at a short distance the push moraine in front of the Thompson Glacier on the Axel Heiberg Isl. Along the shore of Colour Lake near the snout of the Thompson Glacier, there is an observation station that belongs to McGill University in Montreal. Since 1959, during the summer period, a number of scientists have been engaged in the observational works for geomorphology, glaciology, climatology etc. The push moraine of the Thompson Glacier is known already as a famous example in the world. So, the author should like to introduce and to describe that push moraine on the basis of the report of Dr. M. Kälin, that is, “M. Kälin (Dec., 1971) : The Active Push Moraine of the Thompson Glacier, pp. 68, Glaciology, No. 4, Axel Heiberg Island Research Reports, McGill University, Montreal”. A few examples in connection with the characteristics about the push moraine of the Thompson Glacier would be shown as follows. 1) A push moraine is a ridge in the front of glacial tongue, and is formed by the pressure of pushing up in advance of a glacier. 2) The push moraine consists of permanently frozen materials of outwash. 3) The glacier thrusts over the push moraine and the push moraine thrusts over the undeformed outwash plain. And the many thrust surfaces can be observed within the push moraine. 4) The advancing velocity of the glacial front is 7.1 cm/day and 26 m/year. The push moraine is advancing to the center of the Expedition River Valley with 2.7 cm/day of the surface velocity at the outermost rim. 5) 19 push moraines on Axel Heiberg Isl. and 16 push moraines on Ellesmere Isl. are identified by air-photo interpretation. Among the glaciers having a push moraine, 7 glaciers are advancing and 7 glaciers are stationary and 21 glaciers are retreating.
The attractive retail activities of the underground shopping streets on the cities of Japan are one of the most famous in the world, the underground shopping streets provide spaces for activity for more than one eighth of all Japanese population including businessmen, passengers and shoppers. There are one hundred and forty-three underground shopping streets which carry out retail business activities among one hundred and forty-six underground streets in all Japan. The result of the author's study on the underground shopping streets are summarized as follows : (1) The underground shopping streets are composed of the pure collective stores and they occupy less space ratio for selling compared with the space ratio occupied by plaza, streets and others on the underground streets. The special trend of the flow of pedestrians on the underground shopping streets such as increase of passers-by in the evening on weekdays can explain that they have the characters of the amusement quarters actually and mostly composed of restaurants, tea-rooms, bars, groceries and confectionaries. The underground shopping streets located near at central business districts involve more shops selling shopping goods (60%) than shops selling articles such as foods, cakes and drinkings (40%) compared with the underground shopping streets located on railway terminals which involve 40% shops selling shopping goods while there are 60% shops selling foods, cakes and drinkings. And, though the varieties of the land value on the central shopping streets in the cities are generally remarkable, the ones on the underground shopping streets are less discriminated, and in view point of the variety of the land value, the ranking of the underground shopping streets corresponds to the secondary and third class shopping streets in the city region. From the fact the underground shopping streets provide not only for the objects of shopping customers but also for those of amenity seekers and that the characters of amenity exceeds those provided by central shopping streets, they may be defined to be the amusement quarters. (2) When the population of the city surpasses 200, 000, there emerges underground selling floors in some business establishments in central shopping streets, and they come to form a conglomeration of underground selling floors resulting to an underground shopping streets. Three types of underground shopping streets are observed according to the grades of their development : (1) The first underground selling floors of railway stationbuilding and business-building. The enlarged space floors from those of type (1). (3) The underground shopping streets which generally command more than 10, 000 square metres in space and involve more than 100 in numbers of stores and establishments. And type (3) will be divided in the following three subtypes ; (a) the first selling underground floors located at railway station plaza, city plaza and their extended streets. (b) the first and second underground selling floors located at type (1). (c) the first underground selling floors compounded with type (1) and type (2). The ratio of plazas and streets to selling quarters has the trend to increase from type (1) to type (3) as they develop and this phenomenon seems to show the increase of the character of amenity. (3) The existing numbers of underground floors in department stores in a district closely related to the scope of the underground shopping streets, and those cities whose departmentstores have come to develop underground floors give the formation of underground shopping streets. The underground shopping streets which are attributed to type (1) correspond to D class (30-49) and E class (1-29) in terms of classification according to the numbers of stores and establishments in cities populated more than 200, 000.
This is a concise report of the 2nd Inter-Congress, Pacific Science Association, May 20-25, 1973, University of Guam. 136 people attended the conference with successful results in the symposia (1) impact of urban centers, (2) biology and ecology of the crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, (3) natural area system development, (4) problem of on-land ocean floor, (5) Dengue fever and (6) Amyotraphic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia. There were also several scientific excursions. The major program of the 13th Pacific Congress, August 18-30, 1975, University of British Columbia, Vancouver has been determined.