The article contains a general discussion on river processes in different climates. It is stressed that a good knowledge of the natural river processes is of great importance, both for purely scientific reasons and in the interests of society. The prediction of future development and the forecasting of possible environmental risk factors are essential elements in the physical planning. Both the hydrological regime and the sediment production are controlled to a great extent by climate, but they are also affected by a multitude of different factors, mutually related and seldom independent. Vegetation, bedrock and soil conditions, topography and channel geometry are some of these factors. Some typical examples are given from different climatic regions. The influence of the perennially frozen ground on the fluvial processes in arctic regions is discussed and exemplified. In humid, mid-latitude climates, the influence of, among other things, the seasonality and the possible presence of snow and ice during the winter is discussed. The partial absence of vegetation in dry climates and the occurrence of heavy flash floods is discussed, and their significance for the processes is stressed. The close relationship in the dry zones between the fluvial processes, particularly the transport of bed load, and the general geomorphological evolution of the landscape is pointed out. In the tropics, the vegetation plays a very important rôle, bòt other factors, for instance, the “lahar” activity in volcanic areas, may also be significant as regards the river characteristics. In a concluding section, some general concepts are presented. It is pointed out that the fundamental hydrodynamic and fluvial processes are the same, irrespective of climate and other external conditions (concept of similarity), and that the rate of most river processes and their morphological and sedimentological results are directly or indirectly controlled by climate, for instance, by permafrost, river ice, snow and vegetation (concept of climatic control). There is a balance or quasi-balance in all rivers between water discharge and sediment load, determining the general character of fluvial processes and morphological development (water-sediment relationship). As the processes in a river depend on conditions and processes also in other parts of the river basin, it is necessary to treat the whole river basin as a compound unit (the river basin as the fundamental unit). The importance of geomorphological events of different frequencies and magnitudes varies with climate. This is an important topic for further studies (frequency-magnitude relationship). Man's influence on river processes is becoming more and more important. It is necessary to develop satisfactory methods for the prediction of the effects of human activities (man's influence). Process geomorphology would be a useful term to utilize, covering both the influence of climate and other factors, for example man's influence, on the long-term geomorphological development.
The Punjab is the area where the perennial irrigation canals of large-scale were first constructed in the Subcontinent of India. It is indeed true that the larger part of the Punjab has been benefited by the canal networks, while, the area was confronted with a rapid rising of the ground water table, with the result of waterlogging and salinity of fertile land. The serious rising of the water table came to be stabilized with the decrease of rainfall and a series of anti-waterlogging ameliorations, such as the excavation of drains and the boring of tubewells in the first half of the 1960's. With the development of the “green revolution”, tubewells were bored in increasing number and this has resulted in lowering of the water table in certain areas. This paper aims to discuss such a water problem in the Punjab in the light of behaviour of hydrologic cycle. The author points out that little understanding of hydrologic cycle of surface and ground water in the time of water use has caused the above water problem. The results obtained may be summarized as follows : 1) In the natural environment existed before the inception of perennial canal irrigation, the system of hydrologic cycle in the Punjab was characterized by a considerable deep level of ground water, most of which were recharged by the influent seepage from river to the doab. In such deep ground water areas of the doab, the water of heavy showers in August and early September were almost lost by the manners of surface run-off and evapotranspiration and rarely reached to ground water table through the soil and aeration zones. 2) The rising of water table caused by canal irrigations has greatly modified the linkages of hydrologic cycle. That is, vertical transfers of water between the surface and the ground water storages has become actively and resulted in the increase of evapotranspiration. And the lateral transfer of water from river to the doab has turned the outfluent from the doab to river. 3) Irrigation tracts in the Punjab can be grouped into two types in the light of mode of fluctuation of ground water table. In the first group (UBDC, SC-A, FC), the water table was rised by 0.10-0.13 meter/year from 1942 to 1955 and has been stabilized at 2.0-3.5 meters below the surface since 1956. In the second group (SC-B, WYC-B), the water table has been continuously rised by 1.55-0.65 meters/year since 1954 when the Bhakra Canal System was opened. Fluctuations of the water table of the first group can be divided into five stages. These modes and stages of fluctuation were discussed in connection with changed in rainfall and irrigation water managements. 4) Investigations were made into relationships between the fluctuation of water table and its controlling factors in UBDC. On the ground of the above investigations, calculation was made regarding the critical amount of rainfall and rainfall plus irrigation water, less than which the ground water table does not fluctuate. The critical amount of rainfall and rainfall plus irrigation water is 660 mm and 1, 216 mm in year, respectively. Based on these, irrigation water at the monsoon period should be controlled. 5) In the first group of irrigation tracts, where tubewells are intensively bored, the water table has turned the tendency of lowering in the latter half of the 1960's. Total decrease in amount of ground water storage calculated based on the above lowering on the above lowering are about 250 million cubic meter per year. Therefore, it seems that pumping of the ground water by tubewells has already exceeded to the safe yield. The author advocates that a detail calculation of the water balance on irrigation tracts be made in order to make a well-balanced management of water and to prevent cultivators from the disorder of water use which would be caused by the over-lowering of the water table.
UJNR is formally called as United States-Japan Conference on Development and Utilization of Natural Resource. This is a organization for mutual co-operation between U. S. and Japanese governmental science and technological laboratories. Now there are 16 panels under UJNR for various study fields. In these panels 6 panels are concerned with the ocean. The sea bottom surveys panel is one of them and the Japanese chairman is Dr. Akio MOGI, who is the director of surveying division, Hydrographic Department and Dr. Gordon G. LILL, Deputy director of National Ocean Survey, NOAA took the U. S. chairman's post. U. S.-Japan joint meeting is holding annually but the place is regularly changed between U. S. and Japan. Last year, 6thj oint meeting was held at Tokyo and next 7th meeting will be held at Honolulu, Hawaii on August 6 to 8, 1978. At the last meeting, there are many paper presentations which are related to sea bottom survey methods. In these papers, Dr. SATO and Dr. MALAHOFF made their presentations on submarine geology. Dr. SATO's theme is the structure and origin of the continental margin around Japanese Islands. He discussed submarine geological problems around Japanese continental margin. Continental shelf is divided into 6 types. The genesis of continental shelf is considered as erosion of eustatic sea level change during glacial age and tectonic movement. Lower continental shelf (far less than-140 m) is classified into 4 types. Continental slope and trench slope show absolute rising and absolute subsidence, which offered unsolved problems. Dr. MALAHOFF reported Baltimore Canyon Slump Sediment Project. This project was carried out at the southern part of Baltimore Canyon off Delaware Bay, U. S. Atlantic Coast side. Ordinary survey and actual observation by submergible “Alvil” were carried out. Sea bottom of the investigated area is consisted of very fine and soft sediment and it covered with older slump sediments which shaped irregular topography. This unconsolidated sediments easily moved down to lower part of continental rise.