In the relatively short history of Japanese overseas emigration in the modern era, California has been one of the major destinations. This was especially true in the early decades of this century. The cooperative spirit so deeply rooted in traditional Japanese society was transferred to the overseas colony and modified as an adaptive strategy to fit the local conditions found there. The nature of this cooperativism not only differed substantially from one area to another, but was also significantly adapted and transformed. Attention in the present study is focussed on Japanese truck farmers in southern California prior to World War II in order to depict the nature of rural immigrant community and their cooperative spirit. The cooperative movement played a significant role in the development of California agriculture mainly through its marketing activities. However, the impact of these American agricultural organization on Japanese immigrants to California in their earlier engagement in farming was limited. Rather, the idea of cooperation deeply rooted in rural Japan was transferred readily to overseas Japanese communities. The industrial cooperative movement which grew in Japan since the turn of the century provided a good example which overseas immigrants could follow. Agricultural organizations with purely economic purposes, however, came late among the Japanese compared with those organized exclusively for socio-fraternal purposes. A sharp distinction existed between Japanese agricultural cooperatives before and after 1930. In the early 1910's the Japanese farmers began to establish their organizations in southern California. These functioned to circulate agricultural information and helped them adjust to the American systems. These organizations became the focal point of many farming communities. However, these early organizations usually did not function well in the area of cooperative marketing. Better organizations came mainly in the 1930's when socio-economic conditions, such as the Great Depression and the farm labor movement and unionism, forced cooperation. At the same time, the Japanese community began to mature as on the one hand their relationship to their new homeland deepened and broadened, while on the other the immigration flow was cut by the Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1924. Local organizations took on the functions of agricultural cooperatives, while centralized and federated organizations were established in southern California to strengthen and coordinate local bodies. The cooperativism that developed in this period was the farmers' survival mechanism and largescale meetings called to meet special problems were commonplace. The Japanese evacuation during World War II put an end the ethnically cohesive agricultural activities of Issei immigrants. After 1945, the vertical control by the Japanese of the production-wholesaling-retailing aspects of agriculture in southern California established prior to the war was not revived. Nor were many of the Japanese-owned agricultural cooperatives and associations, typical manifestations of Japanese ethnic cooperativism among truck farmers, reconstituted
Recent advancements in conchostracan palaeontology are here summarized with special reference to Eastern Asia where four Mesozoic faunas in two suites were distinguished in 1954, namely, the Daido (T3-J1) and Johol (J2-3) faunas of the Akiyoshi suite and the Kyöngsang (K1-2) and Sungari (K2-3) faunas of the Sakawa suite. Later in 1975 the lower-middle Triassic Maltsevo fauna and the middle Jurassic Kukitanga fauna were added to them for the Asiatic conchostracan grouping. The recent discovery of the Palaeogene estheriids in China bears paramount importance for the history of the creature. The numbers of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic species in Asia and China are shown in table 3. Now the number attains in China 21, 41 and 50 species respectively for the lower, middle and upper Jurassic fauna and 87 and 149 for the early and late Cretaceous fauna by more recent addition. It is a remarkable fact that the number increased during the Triassic period as well as in the later Mesozoic periods toward the Neo-Cretaceous maximum. In Eastern Asia are known now about 400 species in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic faunas, while the Palaeozoic ones are only 30 or so beside several leaiids. In Europe on the contrary they have most flourished in the Devonian period and later declined gradually, but suddenly after the Triassic till the disappearance before the Neo-Cretaceous age. Thus the centre of distribution has shifted in Eurasia from the Atlantic to the Pacific side through the Arctic side in the late Permian and early Triassic age. In North America the conchostracans are well represented in the late Palaeozoic and also in the upper Triassic Newark series yielding 11 species, but only three Mesozoic species are known from the West. In the Gondwana land there are some 150 conchostracan species. In Eastern Australia there are about 30 species of which five-sixths are upper Permian leaiids and estheriids. Among some 50 species in Africa one-fifth is Permo-Carboniferous including a Stephanian (?) species. In South America about one-sixth of 65 species is represented by Permian ones in Brazil. In the Mesozoic fauna ten or more are Andean species. Thus the Permian centre was in Eastern Australia. Later the estherians were flourished in Africa and South America. In other words the centre was shifted westerly in the southern continents. Because the optimum for estheriids is the warm climate in inland basins where they are now thriving and diversified, the intermontane basins in the orogenic zone and the great metaorogenic depressions behind folded mountains were indispensable for the developmentof the creature in Eur-Asia. The extraordinary development in Eastern Asia must have depended on the Mesozoic orogenies, as did the Caledonian and Variscan orogenic cycles in Europe.
A study has been made to classify the natural seasons in Japan for the summer half years (May-October) in the period 1781-90. The weather diagrams and the daily weather distribution maps for that period are described using the data of daily weather records in the official diaries (Fig. 1). The duration of five seasons-spring, the Baiu (summer rainy season), midsummer, the Shurin (autumn rainy season) and autumn-for each year is determined based on the seasonal march of weather (Fig. 2). Average beginning dates of the seasons for 1781-90 were not so different as those for today. However, the year-to-year variability of the beginning dates and the length of natural seasons for that period was large. Among those years, 1783, 1785 and 1786 had extremely unusual weather situations. The climate in 1783 was characterized by the remarkably cool and damp weather conditions in summer (Fig. 3). The beginning and ending dates of the Baiu season were approaximately as usual, whereas the following midsummer, which began on 19 July and ended 4 August in northeastern and central Japan, was extraordinarily short. During the Shurin season which started as early as on 5 August and ended on 10 September, the cloudy and rainy weather caused by the cyclonic and frontal activities prevailed, especially in the northeastern and central Japan. The great historic famine known as “Tenmei no Kikin” could be attributed to those severe weather situations. By contrast, the summer of 1785 was exceptionally hot and dry (Fig. 4). The Baiu season began on 3 June and ended as early as on the beginning of July, and this was followed by the extremely long midsummer which lasted until 3 September. A long spell of hot and dry weather in midsummer was occasionally interrupted by the short spell of stormy weather brought by the approach of typhoons. Those unusual weather conditions caused severe droughts in central and southwestern Japan. The Shurin season followed by midsummer began on 4 September and a rainy weather persisted until the end of October. The weather situations in 1786 were characterized by the long spell of wet weather in the Baiu season and the unstable weather in midsummer (Fig. 5). The Baiu season, the end of which was delayed until the beginning of August, was remarkably long and wet, particularly in southwestern Japan. The duration of midsummer was about 40 days and this was somewhat shorter than as usual. During this season, the heavy rains and floods occured frequently under the influence of typhoons. Those bad weather situations caused the poor harvest of rice cultivation. From these results, we can conclude that the climate in Japan for 1781-90 was extremely variable as for the summer weather situations.
The eolian sand members along the coast of Japan represent at least five major periods of accumulation in the last Glacial age and Holocene. These deposits include well-defined paleosols which divide individual eolian sand members into five parts. The five major periods of eolian sand accumulation can be classified as follows : 4, 000-5, 000 y.B.P. (the young est); 18, 000-20, 000 y.B.P. ; 30, 000 y.B.P. ; 50, 000 y.B.P. ; 70, 000 y.B.P. (the oldest). In Izumo, Kumihama, Amino and Fukui along the coast of Japan Sea, Paleo-sand dunes developed noticeably and five paleosols were buried in these eolian dune sand. The purpose of this paper is to point out that eolian dust deposited much in paleosol horizons and that silt and clay fractions in paleosols originated in eolian dust which came from China in the last Glacial age. The seven samples were collected from the outcrops of paleo-sand dunes in Izumo, Kumihama, Amino and Fukui. Three Chinese loess samples were collected in Chuhua and Manchouli in China. Two desert soils from Wuwei in China and one tephric loess sample from New Zealand were collected. The results from our research are summarized as follows : 1) The mean diameter of paleosols in these areas in Japan is ranging from 0.001 to0.011 mm. Texture of paleosols differentiates from light and heavy clay. The clay fractions of paleosols are characterized by predominance of 14Å minerals, illite, kaolinite and quartz. Contents of quartz in the silt fraction (5-20μ) of paleosols are 32-74%. According to the amount of SiO2, Al2O3and -H2O·IL in the <0.02 mm fraction of paleosols, Japanese samples belong to the eolian dust group. These results are very much consistent with those of the author's previous analysis of loess from Northern Kyushu and Yonaguni Island in Japan, Chinese loess and desert soils, and New Zealand loess. 2) Based on the analyses of size distribution, chemical properties and X ray diffraction, we can conclude that silt and clay fraction in paleosols had originated in eolian dust from China, and paleosols had been formed from loess which compose major part of them in the last Glacial age. 3) Eolian dust had been not only much deposited on the paleosol horizon, but also had less mixed with the eolian sands. This indicates that eolian dust had come continuously from China in the last Glacial age. Following the interruption of dune formation, formation of paleosols had taken place. Simultaneously eolian dust had began to deposit thickly on the dune surface.