From the high altitude the Palaeozoic rocks are classifiable into the Cambrian Tarutao, Ordovician-lower Silurian Thungsong, Silurian-Carboniferous Kanchanaburi and the upper Carboniferous-Permian Ratburi groups. Among these four groups clastic rocks are dominant in the first and third groups and so carbonates in the second and fourth groups. In other words the Palaeozoic sequence consists of the older Palaeozoic Tarutao-Thungsong suite and the later Palaeozoic Kanchanaburi-Ratburi suite. The former and latter suites represent respectively the stable and labile stages of the Burmese-Malayan geosyncline. There were no crustal movements comparable to the Caledonian or Variscan cycle of orogeny in Europe. There emerged a few salient results. Nothing is actually known of the Pre-Cambrian basement of the geosyncline. Its northern extention in west Yunnan suggests that its origin goes back into the Sinian or Proterozoic age. From its comparative stratigraphy with Borneo and the Philippines it is presumed that the axis of the Mesozoic orogenic zone is probably plunging down toward the islands from the continental side.
This study deals with the change of agricultural land use after World War II, including its areal patterns, in a peasant village in the Southwest Germany. In the Limburg Basin there had been three field system (zelgensystem) until the end of 1950's (Fig. 3). This traditional field pattern and the land use have changed greatly in the 1960's and the 1970's. The major change and the characteristics of land use today are summerized in the following : 1. the disappearance of three field system and the increase of difference in the land use composition (or crop rotation) among farmers, 2. the extension of cereal producing area and the reduction of root crops, potatoes, and feed crops, 3. the extension of pasture or meadow land on steep slopes and the land use change from pasture or meadow to arable land in the alluvial land along broocklet, 4. the inexistence of social fallow (Fig. 5). The disappearance of three field system are explained, first of all, by the land consolidation in 1960. But more basically, the specialization of farms enlarged the difference in the land use composition. It resulted in the disappearance of the traditional crop rotation, or three field system. In this village there was only one type of farming, mixed farming. This type of farming has changed into three types of farming Type A : traditional mixed farming, Type B : type of hog raising with cereal production, Type C : crop growing without live-stocks (Fig. 9). Thus, the land use of each peasant farm became different, reflecting the farm management. The inclease in cereal producing area is explained by the enlargement of farm size in the 1960's (Table 3, Fig. 7, 8), the specialization to farming Types B and C in the 1970's, and the mechanization of farming in the 1960's and 70's. The mechanization and the specialization have resulted in the extension of pasture or meadow land on steep slopes, on the one hand, and the land use change from pasture to arable land on the other hand. The inexistence of social fallow, which is seen in peasant area in the Southwest Germany, is explained by the smooth processes of land transfer from the peasant, who would reduce farm size, to the farmers, who would enlarge farm size. In the age of traditional land use, each peasant held the different kinds of land in a similar composition with the other. Consequently, they could use the lands in the similar way and adopt a similar mixed farming. At a village level, the patterns of land use, which peasants made with the same norm, reflected physical conditions and distance from the village (Fig. 3). At a farm level, however, land use composition and crop rotation today are different among peasants, because of the differentiation of farming purposes. Consequently, the land use patterns at a village level reflect less the physical conditions and distance from the village. In other words, actual patterns of land use have become less coincided with the potential in the village as a whole (Fig. 10).
Non-metallic minerals constitute one of the most important commodities of Japan. Statistics of elemental sulfur production is known since 1905 and that of limestone since 1924, but the annual production of the major non-metallic minerals have been published by the government since around 1950. These statistics show that the production of these minerals grew steadily. The production during the last ten years increased from 147 × 106 tons, 88.3 × 109 yen in 1971 to 210 × 106 tons and 208.6 × 109 yen in 1981. This amounts to an increase of 42 percent in tonnage and 136 percent in value. This is shown together with the change of the value of non-metallic minerals produced in Japan since 1952 in Figure 1. In Japan, the gravel, crushed stones and building stones are usually treated separately. The total production of non-metallic minerals including the construction materials in 1981 is estimated to be 1170 × 106 tons and 1700 × 109 yen. The production, import and export of the non-metallic minerals of Japan is laid out in Table 4. Large amounts of various types of non-metallic minerals are being imported. The import of 23 major commodities is valued at 240 × 109 yen in 1981 (Table 5). The non-metallic minerals used for Japanese industry are classified as follows. A. Materials supplied mostly by domestic production. 1. Minerals supplied mostly from domestic mines ; limestone, dolomite, white silica-stone, soft silica-stone, refractory silica-stone, aplite, weathered granite, pottery stone, sericite-clay, Gaerome-clay, bentonite, acid-clay, zeolite, bromine, iodine, peridotite-serpentine, sand and gravel, crushed stones, pumice, artificial light-weight aggregate, perlite. 2. Materials supplied mostly by domestic by-products ; sulphur, gypsum, magnesium-compounds, synthetic gemstone, slag, fly-ash. B. Materials dependent on import. 1. Minerals with short domestic supply ; salt, barite, silica-sand, chromite for refractories, industrial diamond (synthetic). 2. Minerals of only high grade imported ; feldspar, refractory-clay, talc, kaolin, asbestos, diatomite, dimension stone, marble, vermiculite (altered biotite). 3. Minerals totaly dependent on import ; 3-a, Minerals once mined in Japan ; fluorite, rock-crystal, flint, graphite, phosphate-rock, mica, titanium-minerals. 3-b, Minerals which do not occur in Japan ; bauxite for refractories, aluminus-shale, kyanite, sillimanite, andalusite, potash minerals, nitrite, strontium-minerals, zircon, boron-minerals, lithium-minerals.