Pilotrichidium is a genus of two species (P. callicostatum and P. antillarum) with strictly neotropical, primarily geographically distinct, distributions: P. callicostatum north to Mexico, southwest to Ecuador, southeast to Venezuela, and in the Caribbean on the islands of Trinidad and Jamaica; P. antillarum throughout the islands of the Caribbean (except Trindiad and Jamaica) and in Honduras. The affinities of Pilotrichidium lie with the Hookeriopsoid group of the Hookeriaceae, specifically with Diploneuron, Schizomitrium, Thamniopsis, and Hookeriopsis. Pilotrichidium brunnescens and P. antillarum var. complanatum are syn. nov. of P. antillarum, and P. diatomophilum is transferred to the genus Schizomitrium as S. diatomophilum (C. Müll.) Allen & Crosby comb. nov.
Diploneuron, a monotypic genus (D. connivens) known only from Jamaica and Cuba is distinguished by its unique double costae. The costae become marginal approximately one-half the distance from the leaf base and coalesce at the apex into a thickened subulate point. The genus is best positioned in the hookeriopsoid group of the Hookeriaceae, and is closely allied to Pilotrichidium.
The monotypic genus Handeliobryum Broth. is redescribed and illustrated, and gametoecia are described for the first time in this taxon. The genus includes only H. sikkimense (Par.) Ochyra, a species that originally was described as Limbella sikkimensis Ren. & Card., comb. inval. (＝ Sciaromium sikkimense Par.). Handeliobryum setschwanicum Broth., H. himalayanum Broth. and H. assamicum Dix. are considered synonymous with H. sikkimellse. The affinities of this genus, which is known only in sterile condition, are discussed and it is placed in the family Thamnobryaceae of Hypnales, mainly because of typical dendroid habit of the plants, the presence of stipe-leaves and short-celled leaf areolation. Additional distinguishing characters of Handeliobryum are totally bistratose lamina cells and very strong, single costa confluent with thickened, polystratosc leaf margins. Handeliobryum is an endemic genus to the Himalayan-Yunnan region.
Bazzania bhutanica sp. nov. (Lepidoziaceae) with similarities to Acromastigum subg. Inaequilatera is described and figured from Bhutan. Furthermore, some critical characters of B. griffithiana (Steph.) Mizut., which is the type of the recently proposed monotypic genus Dendrobazzania Schust. et Schof., are discussed.
The dicranaceous peristomes, unicellular spores, and lack of both leaf nematogens and leaf rhizoids in Dicnemon rugosum and Werneriobryum geluense make the placement of these species in the Dicnemonaceae untenable. Conversely, the presence of leaves with a hyaline border, well differentiated alar cells, smooth, elongated and porose leaf cells, dense tomentum, and polyseteous condition all indicate that these species are properly placed in the genus Dicranoloma. D. rugosum and D. geluense belong to an atypical element of Dicranoloma. Species belonging to this element are also present in New Zealand, Australia, and New Guinea. Erroneously attributed to Australia, Dicranoloma rugosum is endemic to Tahiti; D. geluense is endemic to the high mountains of eastern New Guinea.
Sciaromiadelphus longifolius A. Abr. & I. Abr., a fossil moss from the Pliocene deposits from Bashkiria in the Soviet Union, is redescribed and illustrated. It is congeneric with and closely related to the extant Sciaromium bartlettii Crum & Steere from Hispaniola, which is also redescribed and illustrated. The new genus Sciaromiella Ochyra is proposed and two new combinations, S. longifolia (A. Abr. & I. Abr.) Ochyra and S. bartlettii (Crum & Steere) Ochyra, are made. Sciaromiadelphus A. Abr. & I. Abr., a fossil moss genus is congeneric with the extant Sciaromiella, the latter having a priority over the former. Sciaromiella is considered to be closely related to Sciaromiopsis Broth., a monotypic genus from China. Sciaromiopsis is redescribed and illustrated. It includes only S. sinensis (Broth.) Broth., and S. brevifolia Broth. is synonymous with the former species. S. nipponensis Sak. from Japan is discussed and this species is inseparable from Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) B., S. & G. var. populeum. The familial placement of Sciaromiella and Sciaromiopsis is discussed and they are placed in the newly described subfamily Sciaromiopsoideae Ochyra of the Donrichardsiaceae Ochyra. A key for genera and species of Donrichardsiaceae is given and the geographical affiliation of the Sciaromiopsoideae is considered.
The paper deals with morpho-taxonomic studies of 54 species of Usnea so far known from India. A key to the species is given. Several species described earlier have been synonymized after examination of type material. Nine species namely Usnea austro-indiea G. Awasthi, U. fischeri G. Awasthi, U. ghattensis G. Awasthi, U. nepalensis Awas. ex G. Awasthi, U. nilgirica G. Awasthi, U. norkettii G. Awasthi, U. pictoides G. Awasthi, U. pseudojaponica G. Awasthi and U. stigmatoides G. Awasthi are recognised and described as new to science.
The genus Squamidium, a group of mosses with a tropical to subtropical American-African distribution, consists of two sections and seven species (prior to this study 27 species were recognized): sect. Squamidium (S. leucotrichum, S. livens, S. isocladum, S. nigricans, S. brasiliense) and sect. Macrosquamidium (S. macrocarpum and S. diversicoma). Twenty-four names are treated as syn. nov., three are provisionally excluded pending an examination of their types, and one new combination is made: Orthostichopsis pilotrichelloides (Sehnem) Allen & Crosby. Section Squamidium is characterized by immersed capsules, stolon leaves with entire margins, and a relatively high basal membrane. Section Macrosquamidium is characterized by exserted capsules, stolon leaves with sharply recurved marginal teeth, and a relatively low basal membrane. The genus is retained in the Meteoriaceae. Within the Meteoriaceae Squamidium is most closely related to Zelometeorium from which it differs only by its lack of squarrose-recurved leaves and its more well-developed alar cells. Squamidium, which in the absence of sporophytes has been confused consistently with Orthostichopsis, is separated from that genus on the basis of its lack of pseudoparaphyllia, weaker costae, lack of a distinct region of reddish cells across the leaf base, and strongly decurrent alar cells.
The germination and sporeling development of Fontinalis squamosa Hedw. was investigated at 3, 14, and 20℃ and five light intensities. The sporeling type most closely resembles that of several acrocarpous mosses in that it produces both chloronema and caulonema. The sporeling forms suggest that the protonema form is adaptive rather than genetic, and the ecological implications of the conditions affecting protonemal development are discussed.
The objective of this field perturbation experiment was to investigate the effects of simulated acidic rain and lead interaction on the phenology and chlorophyll content of Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a dominant species of the boreal forest. During two consecutive seasons (April - November, 1984 and 1985) a simulated acidic rain of pH 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 aws applied biweekly to 0.5 m2 plots of Pleurozium schreberi in a Pinus banksiana Lamb. forest at Alberta, Michigan, U.S.A. Each acidity level was further subdivided into three lead levels (0, 50, and 1000 ppb), giving a total of nine treatments, each with ten plots. Unsprayed plots served as controls. Significant effects (p＜0.05, Duncan's New Multiple-Range Test) were observed at pH 3.0 during the second year: older stem parts contained less chlorophyll; growth and formation of side branches decreased; capsule density decreased.